Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC): A Critical Development Path
The first generation of synthetic bone substitute materials (BSM) was initially investigated in the mid 1970s using hydroxyapatite (HA) as a biomaterial for remodeling of bone defects. The concepts established by CPC pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a second generation of BSM for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in composition, performance and manufacturing. A self-setting and injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) based on amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) with calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) atomic ratio less than 1.5, combined with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD or brushite, seeded with apatite), is proposed. Amorphization of raw material was observed following high energy mechano-chemical processing. Upon hydration, the cement hardened in less than 3 minutes at 37°C and reached a maximum compressive strength of about 50 MPa. The final product was a low crystalline calcium deficient carbonated apatite similar to the composition and structure of bone mineral. In vivo performance of this cement in mediating bone healing was compared to α-BSM® in a rabbit femoral defect model. Performance characteristics of some commercially available CPC products are compared. The concerns of CPC designers and the needs of product users (surgeons) are discussed.
Guy Daculsi and Pierre Layrolle
A. Tofighi et al., "Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC): A Critical Development Path", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 361-363, pp. 303-306, 2008