Our previous studies suggested that synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) enhances bone regeneration more than hydroxyapatite (HA). However, the molecular mechanisms to induce osteogenic phenotype in osteoblast by OCP have not been identified. OCP tended to convert into an apatite structure in vivo and in vitro, and its process was accompanied by calcium consumption from the surrounding solution and the release of phosphate ions into the solution at a physiological condition. The present study was designed to investigate whether the dissolution of ionic products of OCP affects on proliferation and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells in vitro. The number of cells treated with OCP-conditioned medium was slightly decreased in comparison to that of control at day 7. On the other hand, the level of alkaline phosphatase activity increased in OCP-conditioned medium. These results demonstrated that OCP is capable of inducing osteoblastic cell differentiation in ST-2 cells.