Injectable Bone Cements for Vertebroplasty Studied in Sheep Vertebrae with Electron Microscopy
Vertebral compression fractures were simulated by making a hole into sheep vertebrae and by injecting a stabilizing material. The injectable bio-ceramic Xeraspine™ was evaluated together with a commercially available PMMA (Vertebroplastic™) as the reference material. The Vertebrae were harvested after 7 days and prepared for microscopy. The samples were deposited with gold on the surface and thereafter subjected to SEM and EDX analysis. It was found that the Xeraspine-bone interface was composed of a mixture of elements. The Vertebroplastic implant was embedded in a carbon containing tissue, likely a soft tissue capsule. The Xeraspine sample was subjected to high resolution analysis in the TEM combined with EDX measurements. The TEM sample was prepared with a novel technique for preparation of the tissue-material interface (FIB). In the TEM analysis it was found that the interface region consists of ZrO2 together with a mixture possibly consisting of katoite and apatite formed during setting and/or originating from the boneapatite.
Guy Daculsi and Pierre Layrolle
T. Jarmar et al., "Injectable Bone Cements for Vertebroplasty Studied in Sheep Vertebrae with Electron Microscopy", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 361-363, pp. 373-376, 2008