Phase stability of 3 mol% yttria stabilized polycrystalline zirconia ceramics (3Y-TZP) was evaluated by aging test in water vapor environment and Raman spectroscopic technique. In our previous study, it has been confirmed that phase stability was improved by controlling sintering temperature. In this study, we pointed our attention and evaluated the influence of surface conditions related to machining and to heat treatment, thus monitoring the changes in phase transformation fraction and residual stress on the material surface. From the results of aging test, an increase in monoclinic fraction was observed for grinded surfaces as compared with polished surfaces. Samples subjected to heat treatment after machining showed improved phase stability. A Vickers indentation print was also introduced on a 3Y-TZP surface, and the relationship between surface condition and low temperature aging was evaluated in the neighborhood of the print. We found that the residual stress fields induced in phase-transformed areas were enhanced during low temperature aging, and that phase stability was improved by heat treatment.