Colloidal processing was used to cast zirconia and hydroxyapatite materials. The cast materials reached densities around 99% when sintered at 1500°C and 1200°C respectively. By controlling the colloidal process the sintered density of hydroxyapatite was also reduced to around 80% when the same sintering condition was used. The casting process was combined with free form fabrication to prepare designed scaffolds with identical macroporosity. These scaffolds were used to evaluate the early bone tissue response in rabbit femur. After six weeks of implantation the bone area in scaffolds of zirconia and hydroxyapatite were compared. In scaffolds of hydroxyapatite the bone area was roughly three times larger compared to corresponding scaffolds of zirconia. When the scaffolds of hydroxyapatite also contained an open microporosity of around 20% the amount of bone was even more pronounced. The results showed the importance of the material composition and the microstructure on the bone regenerating performance of scaffolds.