In Vitro Bone Formation on Bioactive Titanium
Titanium has limitations in its clinical performance in dental and orthopaedic applications. Over the last decade, numerous implant surface modifications have been developed and are currently used with the aim of enhancing bone integration. In the present study, we have experimented a bioactive titanium prepared by a simple chemical and moderate heat treatment that leads to the formation of a bone-like apatite layer on its surface in simulated body fluids. We haved used foetal rat calvaria cell cultures to investigate bone nodule formation on bioactive titanium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that cells attached and spread on the bioactive surfaces. After 22 days of culture, bone nodules were detected on the material surface. Furthermore, the mineralized bone nodules remained attached to the bioactive titanium surface but not to untreated titanium. SEM observations and EDX microanalysis of sectioned squares showed that bone-like tissue directly bonded to bioactive titanium, but not pure titanium. These results indicated the importance of the implant surface composition in supporting differentiation of osteogenic cells and the subsequent apposition of bone matrix allowing a strong bond to bone. Furthermore, these findings may provide promising strategies for the development of biologically active implants.
Guy Daculsi and Pierre Layrolle
J. Isaac et al., "In Vitro Bone Formation on Bioactive Titanium", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 361-363, pp. 939-942, 2008