Since 2001, we have clinically utilized human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone regeneration. The osteogenic ability of MSCs has been assessed by measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition. As for the detection of in vitro calcium deposition, we have established the method using calcein, which is a calcium-binding fluorescence material. Using this fluorescence material, we could observe the calcium deposition and then estimate the value of calcium deposition. In this report, we cultured rat MSCs on culture plate as well as transparent β-TCP, and calcium deposition was visualized and quantitated using an image analyzer. After 2 weeks differentiation of rat MSCs to osteoblasts, calcium deposition on β-TCP was observed as a signal of calcium-binding fluorescence. This fluorescence signal was also quantitated with an image analyzer.