As one of the key factors grinding heat has a significant effect on the ground surface quality in grinding engineering ceramics using diamond grinding wheel. Differences between mechanical and physical performances of ceramic materials and grinding parameters have important influences on the surface temperature distribution. In the present research, experiments with/without ultrasonic assistance were carried out to study the temperature characteristics in the grinding field by thermocouple in grinding ZrO2 and Al2O3 engineering ceramics respectively. Moreover, the theoretical analysis and the experiment confirmation for the relationship between grinding parameters and temperature have been discussed. The results show that the further the heat source keeps against grinding surface, the lower the peak value of temperature, and the surface temperature increases with the grinding depth, grinding speed and work table speed. According to the results of orthogonal experiments on grinding parameters, the grinding depth is the most important factor affecting the grinding temperature on the workpiece surface.