A novel calcium phosphate cement (CPC) was prepared by mixing partially crystallized calcium phosphate (PCCP) containing carbonate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) in this work. The effects of the carbonate content on the phase composition, strength, prosity, and degradation of the set bodies were studied. The results showed that the cement formed into hydroxyapatite (HAp) after setting, in which carbonate doped into the HAp crystal lattice. With the increase of the carbonate to phosphate ratio in PCCP, the compressive strength of the cement declined and the setting of the cement accelerated. Furthermore, the calcium phosphate cement formed a more porous structure with the increase of the carbonate to phosphate ratio in PCCP. The results also indicated that the degradation of CPC may be speeded up by introducing carbonate to the cement.