Nanopowder and Fine-Grained Ceramics for Multilayer PTCR Elements
BaTiO3 nanopowders prepared by sol-gel process were used for multilayer PTCR ceramics in order to utilize grain boundary effect and lower sintering temperature. The precursor gel was calcined at different temperatures and the powders were characterized by XRD and TEM. The average grain size was about 26nm when calcined at 800°C for 2h. Effects of acceptor/donor concentration and sintering temperature on PTCR ceramics were also investigated. The optimal concentration of the donor was found to be 0.6mol with the acceptor concentration being 1/8 of the donor. Multilayer PTCR elements were fabricated by tape-casting technique. The jump ratio of PTCR chips sintered at 1240°C was above 103 with the average grain size smaller than 1~2 μm, which is suitable for the multilayer PTCR elements.
Wei Pan and Jianghong Gong
J. Zhao et al., "Nanopowder and Fine-Grained Ceramics for Multilayer PTCR Elements", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 368-372, pp. 453-455, 2008