Silicon dioxide gel fibers were prepared by hydrolysis reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). TEOS was used as basic materials, anhydrous ethanol (EtOH) as solvent and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as the catalyst. The best proportion of the chosen materials (TEOS, EtOH, H2O and HCl) was 1:1:1.5:0.03(molar ratio).Gel fibers were investigated by thermogravimetry (TG). Silicon dioxide fibers were obtained by treating the gel fibers at different temperatures. The calcined fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal sintering schedule was obtained. Silicon dioxide fiber dried at 200°C for 1 hour then calcined at 800°C for 3 hours was the best.