β-Si3N4 and β-SiAlON powders were prepared by combustion synthesis with SrCO3 and NH4F used as additives. The resultant β-Si3N4 and β-SiAlON powders consisted of elongated prismatic microcrystals. By adding SrCO3, the anisotropic growth of β-Si3N4 and β-SiAlON crystals is improved and their aspect ratios increase. The addition of NH4F enhanced nitridation reactions and reduced the residual Si in combustion products. It was proposed that the elongated prismatic β-Si3N4 and β-SiAlON crystals grew from liquid phase and the composition and property of this liquid was affected by the addition of SrCO3.