The present paper reviews the scientific development of our understanding of S-Phase. It is now known that S-Phase formation is an example of para equilibrium phenomena. A necessary but not sufficient condition for S-Phase formation is the presence of an fcc structure at least in part with structure in the starting alloy. An essential requirement is for a nitride forming element to be present particularly Cr. After surface engineering with carbon, nitrogen or carbon and nitrogen to generate supersaturated solid solutions, the various tribological, corrosion, mechanical and microstructural studies are reviewed for the various alloy systems. The current industrial status of S-Phase technology on an international basis is examined and the potential for its acceptance in china is discussed.