Steel castings with a ceramic reinforced surface layer have been prepared by a casting process combined with self-propagation high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Two material systems, Fe-Ti-C-Al and Al-Fe2O3, were selected in this paper to prepare the steel castings with a ceramic reinforced surface layer. During the process, high temperature steel melt was poured into a sand mould in which SHS performs were cast. The performs were ignited by the high temperature steel melt. As a result, an SHS reaction happened and ceramic reinforcements were synthesized inside the mould. After the penetration of the molten steel and the scattering of the ceramic reinforcement, a steel casting with an in-situ ceramic reinforced surface layer was obtained.