Surface modifications were performed on the tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrates for optoelectronic devices, using the different processing techniques. The effects of modification methods on the surface properties of ITO substrates were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer, standard goniometry and four-probe meter, respectively. The surface free energy as the sum of the dispersion and polar components was evaluated from the measured contact angles using the Owens-Wendt approach. Experimental results demonstrate that except the optical transmittance of the ITO, the surface properties including the stoichiometry, morphology, wettability and sheet resistance of the ITO substrates strongly depend on the modification methods. Compared with the other treatments, the oxygen plasma treatment increases the oxygen concentration and decreases the carbon concentration, reduces the surface roughness and the sheet resistance, and enhances the surface free energy and the polarity, and thereby more effectively improves the surface properties of ITO substrates.