Study on the Structure and Electrochromism of WO3 and Ti-Doped WO3 Films
WO3 and Ti-doped WO3 electrochromic films were prepared by mid-frequency dual-target magnetron sputtering method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and spectrophotometer were used to characterize the structure, morphology, composition and transmittance properties of the films, respectively. The results show that this method is available to deposit WO3 and Ti-doped WO3 electrochromic films. The as-deposited films prepared at room temperature are amorphous and display good transmittance. The difference value of transmittance between the bleached and coloration states of WO3 film is above 60% at 633nm. Ti-doped WO3 films have smoother surface and smaller grains than undoped ones. Moreover, the crystalline temperature increases after doping titanium, because the titanium atoms influence the lattice distortion of the WO3 films. So it is more convenient for Li+ ions to inject into films and can enhance the response speed and stability of Ti-doped WO3 electrochromic films.
M.K. Lei, X.P. Zhu, K.W. Xu and B.S. Xu
L. G. Wang et al., "Study on the Structure and Electrochromism of WO3 and Ti-Doped WO3 Films", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 373-374, pp. 726-729, 2008