Ensuring Implant Fixation and Sol-Gel Derived Ceramic Coatings
Bioactive ceramic coatings have been widely applied to ensure direct chemical implant-bone contact, thus reducing the time required for osseointegration. In this respect the plasma-sprayed CaP coatings are the most widely applied, although the composition, structure and the adhesion to the substrate are difficult to control. Despite the success in preparing a large variety of bioactive ceramics, metal implants are still widely used in load-bearing orthopedic and dental applications. Regardless, that the inert metallic materials do not form a chemical bond with tissues, in both hard and soft tissue environments, but rather a fibrous tissue capsule is formed. In order for a material to chemically attach to bone, spontaneous formation (or ready-made presence) of bone-mineral like calcium phosphate (CaP) on the materials’ surface in physiological environments is needed. In this review both conventional and sol-gel derived ceramics are discussed as well as the recent attempts to ensure implant fixation. Special focus is put on the use of sol-gel derived titania coatings and their applications including the newest findings in soft tissue environment.
S. Areva and M. Jokinen, "Ensuring Implant Fixation and Sol-Gel Derived Ceramic Coatings", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 377, pp. 111-132, 2008