Upgrading Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications
The research on ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is, nowadays, one of the newest and most attractive topics in the field of materials for biomedical applications. These scaffolds are aimed to provide supporting or even enhance the reparative capacity of body. Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCPs) and silicon doped BCP are very interesting candidates to be used as materials for scaffolds fabrication in bone tissue engineering. BCPs and silicon doped BCP consist of a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or HA and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), respectively. For the regenerative purposes BCPs show better performance than HA because of the higher solubility of β-TCP compound, which facilitate the subsequent bone ingrowth in the implant. On the other, silicon doped BCP involve silicon that substituted into the apaptite crystal lattice for phosphorous with the subsequent charge imbalance. HA/α-TCP based bioceramics exhibits an important improvement of the bioactive behaviour with respect to non-substituted apatites. This work reviews the procedures to synthesise and fabricate scaffolds based on HA/β-TCP and silicon stabilised HA/α-TCP. Special attraction has been paid in the different synthesis methods and to the shaping of final scaffolds. By knowing the scaffold features at the crystallinity and macrostuctural level, the biocompatibility and clinical performance can be better understood, which will be also considered in this review.
S. Sánchez-Salcedo et al., "Upgrading Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 377, pp. 19-42, 2008