This paper summarizes recent work on a new theory of fatigue crack growth in ductile solids based on the total plastic energy dissipation per cycle ahead of the crack. The fundamental hypothesis of the theory proposes a unified criterion for crack extension under monotonic and fatigue loading, so that the fatigue crack growth rate is given explicitly in terms of the total plastic dissipation per cycle and the monotonic fracture properties of the material. The total plastic dissipation per cycle is obtained by 2-D elastic-plastic finite element analysis of a stationary crack under constant amplitude loading, for both mode I (C(T)) and general mixed-mode I/II specimen geometries. Both elastic-perfectly plastic and bi-linear kinematic hardening constitutive behaviors are considered, and numerical results for a dimensionless plastic dissipation per cycle are presented over a wide range of relevant mechanical properties and mixed-mode loading conditions. Results are further extended to include fatigue delamination of layered material systems, where either discrete mismatches or a continuous grading of mechanical properties can exist across the interface.