Abstract: The aircraft industry strives for significantly reduced development and operating costs.
Reduction of structural weight at safe design is one possibility to reach this objective which is
aimed by the running EU project COCOMAT. The main objective of COCOMAT is a future design
scenario for composite curved stiffened panels which are understood as parts of real aircraft
structures. This design scenario exploits considerable reserve carrying capacities in fibre composite
fuselage structures by accurate simulation of collapse. The project results will comprise an
experimental data base, improved slow and fast computational tools as well as design guidelines. A
reliable simulation of the collapse load requires also taking degradation into account. For the
validation of the tools a sound database of experiments are needed which give information about the
progress of damage during the loading process. This paper focuses on experimental results of four
nominally identical CFRP panels tested within the COCOMAT project at the buckling test facility
of the Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems (DLR). In a first step, three of the
four panels were loaded several thousand times. Each time the panel was loaded beyond global
buckling and was unloaded to zero. Finally, all panels were tested until collapse. During the tests,
advanced measurement systems such as High-Speed-ARAMIS, thermography and Lamb-waves
were applied. The test results given in this paper may be used as benchmarks.
Abstract: Experimental static and fatigue tension-tension tests were carried out on 5HS/RTM6
composite intact coupons and coupons incorporating adhesively-bonded (FM300-2) stepped flush
joints. The results show that the adhesive joint, which is widely used in repairs, significantly
reduces the static strength as well as the fatigue life of the composite. Both, the static and the
fatigue failure of the ‘repaired’ coupons occur at the adhesive joint and involve crack initiation and
propagation. The latter is modelled using interface finite elements based on the decohezive zone
approach. The material degradation in the interface constitutive law is described by a damage
variable, which can evolve due to the applied loads as well as the number of fatigue cycles. The
fatigue formulation, based on a published model, is adapted to fit the framework of the pseudotransient
formulation that is used as a numerical tool to overcome convergence difficulties. The
fatigue model requires three material parameters. Numerical tests show that a single set of these
parameters can be used to recover, very accurately, the experimental S-N relationship. Sensitivity
studies show that the results are not mesh dependent.
Abstract: Structures manufactured in fibre-metal laminates (e.g. Glare) have been designed
considering ideal mechanical properties determined by the Classical Lamination Theory. This
means that among other assumptions, perfect bonding conditions between layers are assumed.
However, more than often, perfect interfaces are not achieved or their quality is not guaranteed.
When in laboratory, high-quality fibre-metal laminates are easily fabricated, but in the production
line the complicated manufacturing process becomes difficult to control and the outcome products
may not meet the quality expected. One of the consequences may be the poor adhesion of metalprepreg
or prepreg-prepreg as the result of porosity.
The interlaminar shear strength of fibre-metal laminates decreases considerably, due to porosity, as
the result of insufficient adhesion between layers. Small voids or delaminations lead to stress
concentrations at the interfaces which may trigger delamination-propagation at the aluminiumprepreg
and prepreg-prepreg interfaces at load levels significantly lower than what is achievable for
perfectly bonded interfaces. Mechanical experiments show a maximum drop of 30% on the
interlaminar shear strength.
In the present work, the effects of manufacturing-induced porosity on the interlaminar shear strength
of fibre-metal laminates are studied using a numerical approach. The individual layers are modelled
by continuum elements, whereas the interfaces are modelled by cohesive elements which are
equipped with a decohesion law to simulate debonding. Porosity is included in the geometry of the
interface by setting some of these elements to a pre-delaminated state.
Abstract: Composite damage modelling with cohesive elements has initially been limited to the analysis of
interface damage or delamination. However, their use is also being extended to the analysis of inplane
tensile failure arising from matrix or fibre fracture. These interface elements are typically
placed at locations where failure is likely to occur, which infers a certain a priori knowledge of the
crack propagation path(s). In the case of a crack jump for example, the location of the jump is
usually not obvious, and the simulation would require the placement of cohesive elements at all
element faces. A better option, presented here, is to determine the potential location of cohesive
elements and insert them during the analysis.
The aim of this work is to enable the determination of the crack path, as part of the solution process.
A subroutine has been developed and implemented in the commercial finite element package
ABAQUS/Standard in order to automatically insert cohesive elements within a pristine model,
on the basis of the analysis of the current stress field. Results for the prediction of delamination are
presented in this paper.
Abstract: A boundary element method (BEM) for the analysis of the semipermeable crack
is developed using the numerical Green’s function approach. The extended crack opening displacement
(COD) of a straight crack is represented by the continuous distribution of extended
dislocation dipoles, with the built-in √r COD behavior, which is integrated analytically to give
the whole crack singular element (WCSE) equipped with the √r COD and the 1/√r crack tip
extended stress singularity. Linear BEM solvers for the impermeable and permeable cracks are
developed first and then an iterative procedure to reach the semipermeable solution using the
impermeable and permeable solvers is proposed. The convergence study is performed for the
single cracks in the infinite and finite bodies with associated numerical results for the extended
stress intensity factors (SIFs) and other variables. The proposed numerical Green’s function
approach does not require the post-processing for the accurate determination of the extended
stress intensity factors and is ideally suited for the proposed nonlinear iteration scheme for the
Abstract: This work aims at introducing the concept of the numerical Green’s function (NGF) idea
for elastostatic fracture mechanics using the boundary element-free method (BEFM). Unlike the
local boundary integral equation method (LBIE), the BEFM only requires boundary interpolation.
This method derives from the coupling of the boundary integral equation method and the orthogonal
moving least-squares approximation scheme (OMLS). OMLS differs from standard MLS by using
an orthogonal basis instead of only a linear independent one, which increases its accuracy and
efficiency. Some illustrative examples are included in the end.
Abstract: This paper presents the development of a new boundary element formulation
for analysis of fracture problems in creeping materials. For the creep crack analysis the Dual
Boundary Element Method (DBEM), which contains two independent integral equations, was
formulated. The implementation of creep strain in the formulation is achieved through domain
integrals in both boundary integral equations. The domain, where the creep phenomena takes
place, is discretized into quadratic quadrilateral continuous and discontinuous cells. The creep
analysis is applied to metals with secondary creep behaviour. This is con
ned to standard power
law creep equations. Constant applied loads are used to demonstrate time e¤ects. Numerical
results are compared with solutions obtained from the Finite Element Method (FEM) and
others reported in the literature.