Progress in Surface Treatment

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Authors: Pierre Fauchais, Ghislain Montavon
Abstract: Thermal spraying consists in a technology aiming at producing coatings whose thicknesses range from 10 μm to a few millimeters onto mechanical components to confer them specific and unique functional properties, such as wear and corrosion resistances, friction coefficient adaptation, thermal and electrical insulation, biocompatibility, repair, etc., among the principals. Thermal spraying consists in injecting in a viscous enthalpic jet (animated by a momentum) powder with particles which average size ranges from 0.01 to 100 μm. These particles are melted and simultaneously accelerated towards the surface of the part to be covered. They form, after impact, spreading and solidification, near-circular lamellae the stacking of which form the coating. Due to the versatility of the available processes exhibiting a wide range of enthalpic and momentum contents, virtually any kind of material exhibiting congruent melting behavior can be processed, from alloys and ceramics to polymers, ever since its melting temperature differs from its vaporization or decomposition temperature by at least 300 K and that it can be processed previously under the form of powder particles or wires. Thermal spray techniques offer the unique capability to manufacture a large variety of coatings on components of a large variety and geometry. However, thermal spraying constitutes a special process for which the coating service properties derive mostly from the structure and indirectly from the selection of the operating parameters. Very significant improvements over the past years permitted to diagnose the in-flight particle characteristics, mostly in terms of velocity and temperature. Recently, these new capabilities have made possible the development of on-line process controls. This should participate to a drastic increase in coating reliability. In convetntional thermal spraying processes, a pulverulent feedstock (i.e., powder particles) is injected within the plasma jet via a carrier gas. This approach does not permit to process small diameter particles; i.e., nano-sized particles, which could permit to form finely grained coatings. Replacing gas by liquid to carry particles offer the unique possibility to process nano-sized particles. Cold gas spraying may appear as an alternative process to reach the same goal. Indeed, thermal spray processes experienced very significant developments over the past years, opening new doors to manufacture coatings with a high reliability and superior properties. This papepr indend at presenting some of those developments.
Authors: Kevin Spencer, Ming Xing Zhang
Abstract: Cold spray is an emerging coating technology that allows hardness, corrosion and wear resistance, as well as thermal and electrical properties of surfaces to be optimised. The advantages of cold spray over thermal spray are discussed, with emphasis on a new cold spray variant called Kinetic Metallization. The influence of gas dynamics on surface adhesion are examined. Examples from the literature and from the present work of corrosion and wear resistance, bond strength and cohesive strength of cold spray coatings are reviewed.
Authors: Bernhard Wielage, Thomas Lampke, Thomas Grund
Abstract: Thermal spraying is one of the most variable and diverse surface coating techniques concerning materials to be processed as well as possible geometries to be coated. The group of thermal spray processes covers a large parameter field to combine nearly each coating with each base material. Thermally sprayed coatings can be applied very evenly and therefore allow to be applied on final-shaped components. Otherwise, if further treatment or finishing is necessary, thermal spray coatings can be processed by grinding or even milling. Masking during the coating process permits the selective coating of specific surface parts or the application of required geometrically structures, e. q. conductor structures. The main application field of thermal spray coatings is the (combined) wear and corrosion protection of selected component parts.
Authors: Bernhard Wielage, Thomas Grund, Hanna Pokhmurska, Christian Rupprecht, Thomas Lampke
Abstract: A brief overview of existing methods of post-treatment of thermally sprayed coatings is given and the influence of mechanical and chemical as well as high-energy beam post-treatment methods on the coating microstructure formation and some exploitation properties is described. As a special example, the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on magnesium alloys using electron and laser beams and high-density irradiation of an infra-red beamer for the improvement of wear and corrosion resistance is presented.
Authors: Wolfgang Tillmann, Evelina Vogli, Ingor Baumann, Benjamin Krebs
Abstract: Deep drawing of high strength steels imposes high tribological requirements on forming tools. Thermal spraying is regarded as a promising technology to improve the tool’s performance and the service life of the forming tool, as long as ambitious demands of the coating process are matched. In order to qualify a thermal spraying process for a surface technology in deep drawing it is crucial that the coating obtains an extremely dense structure and a smooth, near-net-shape surface. The study presented considers two different approaches to achieve those goals. The application of fine-scaled powders (<10$m) spraying through HVOF technique offers the opportunity to deposit dense coatings with very smooth surfaces. In contrast, it is also feasible to achieve very smooth and dense coatings by combining conventional powders with a subsequently densification procedure
Authors: C.T. Kwok, F.T. Cheng, Hau Chung Man, K.I. Leong
Abstract: Laser surface modification of nine tool steels, namely, plastics mold steels (PMSs), high-speed steels (HSSs) and cold/hot-work steels (CHWSs), was achieved by means of a CW Nd:YAG laser. The microstructure and the phases present in the surface of the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning-electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The surface hardness of the specimens was measured using a Vickers microhardness tester. The corrosion characteristics of the laser surface-melted steels in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution at 25 oC were studied by potentiodynamic polarization technique. The microstructures of the surface of the steels were changed completely after laser surface melting. Some steels showed improved corrosion resistance compared with the conventionally hardened specimens due to dissolution of the alloying elements in solid solution. The hardness and corrosion characteristics of all the laser surface-melted specimens are strongly dependent on the amount of passivating elements in solid solution and also on the morphology of the re-precipitated carbides. Both these factors depend on the laser processing parameters and the substrate compositions.
Authors: Ibrahim M. Ghayad, Madiha A. Shoeib, Taha Mattar, Huda M. Hussain
Abstract: Stainless steel AISI 304 was laser treated to enhance corrosion resistance and improve surface properties. . This alloy has many applications in auto industry (car body,) as well as oil and gas industry. Different conditions were applied in the laser surface treatment, namely: laser power density, scan speed, distance between paths, medium gas (air, argon and nitrogen). After laser treatment, the samples microstructures were investigated using optical microscope to examine micro structural changes due to laser irradiation. Specimen surfaces were investigated using XRD, SEM and EDAX before and after laser treatment to examine the surface composition changes brought by laser irradiation. Results showed that laser irradiation enhances the corrosion resistance of AISI 304 Stainless steel to a large extent. Corrosion rates as low as 0.011 mpy for laser treated samples were obtained in comparison to 0.952 mpy obtained for the untreated samples. Superior pitting corrosion resistance was obtained under specific treatment conditions. The enhancement of corrosion resistance depends on the laser irradiation conditions. The corrosion protection afforded by laser treatment is attributed mainly to the grain refinement of the top surface layer. This layer is found to consist of nano-scale grains.
Authors: Adele Carradò, Hervé Pelletier, Felix Sima, Carmen Ristoscu, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Ion N. Mihailescu
Abstract: In this article, two original studies of the alumina as porous substrate and PLD (pulsed laser deposition) thin films in view of its biomedical and tribological applications are presented. The first biomedical study aimed to evaluate the role of Al2O3 on thin deposited nanostructures. For this purpose, cerium stabilized zirconia doped hydroxyapatite thin films were deposited by PLD onto high purity, high density alumina substrates with different low porosities. For deposition, an UV KrF* (λ=248 nm, τ ~ 25 ns) excimer laser was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the targets. The nanostructured surface morphologies of the thin films with micro droplets were evidenced by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the compositions with a Ca/P ratio of 1.7 by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The films were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells for in vitro tests. The cells showed good attachment and spread and covered uniformly the surface of the samples. Different functions of substrate porosities are observed in the efficiency of developing long filopodia and of obtaining the optimal intracellular organization. The second study aimed to understand the influence of micro-structural and mechanical characteristics on the tribological behaviour of stainless steel samples with PLD alumina coatings produced using an UV KrF* (λ=248 nm, τ ~ 20 ns) excimer laser and a sintered alumina target. Various microscopic observation techniques were used in order to connect the tribological response to the amorphous microstructure of the coatings. The results correspond to the determination of the mechanical characteristics by nanoindentation tests, scratch tests, and a tribological behaviour analysis of the treated steel against 100Cr6. The films were stoichiometric, partially crystallized with an amorphous matrix and their surfaces had few particulates deposited on. The obtained values of hardness and elastic modulus of the films were in good agreements with literature data.
Authors: Shou Jin Sun, Milan Brandt
Abstract: The melt pool size of a single-track clad in the laser cladding of Hastelloy C, a Nickel based alloy, on mild steel substrate has been investigated. The effect of laser processing parameters, such as laser power density, scan rate and powder mass flow rate on the melt pool size has been examined. It was found that the melt pool size is strictly controlled by the melt pool temperature which increases with laser power but decreases with increasing scan rate and powder mass flow rate. The melt pool size is critical for the clad formation in terms of clad height and dilution with the substrate. The clad height increases linearly with the ratio of melt pool size to powder stream diameter while the dilution is an exponential function of the ratio of melt pool size to laser spot size.

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