In Vitro and In Vivo Behaviour of a Ceramic with Interconnected Macroporosity
Bioactive ceramics such as β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) promote and enhance biological fixation. Ceramics with a porous interconnected structure are suited for facilitation of bony ingrowth. An interconnected pore system with pore diameters in excess of 100 µm is required for cell penetration, tissue ingrowth, vascularization and nutrient delivery to the centre of the regenerating tissue. Human osteoblasts were cultured on the surface of a ceramic. In an in-vivo study, β-TCP samples with a porous interconnected structure were implanted into the femur of sheep and then investigated 6 weeks after operation. Histological analysis was performed on the area surrounding the implant. An indentation test was performed to complete failure of the bone/ceramic compound. Linear load, peak load and stiffness were recorded. All cylinders were found to be biocompatible and osteoconductive. Bone was more abundant in the outer ring than in the rest of the cylinder. The ceramic/bone compound was of low mechanical grade.
Marcelo Prado and Cecília Zavaglia
A. Bernstein et al., "In Vitro and In Vivo Behaviour of a Ceramic with Interconnected Macroporosity", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 396-398, pp. 19-22, 2009