Concept of a Bioactive Implant with Functional Gradient Structure
A material able to be used as bone implant for specific applications was developed. The proposed solution establishes that all implant surfaces should be bioactive since porous surfaces in contact with bone are extremely necessary for bone adhesion. The bioactive material composite with high mechanical strength designed with a PMMA functional structure gradient produced in this work has a dense core enveloped by a porous bioactive surface. Pore sizes and shapes as well their interconnectivity was analyzed by SEM tests; the cytotoxicity was investigated in vitro using Vero cell and bone conductivity and biocompatibility was investigated in vivo in rabbits. The implant porous bioactive part analyzed in vitro showed no toxicity and tests in vivo showed a remarkable biocompatibility and bone cell growth. Some samples with hydroxyapatite (HAp) were analyzed by EDX and SEM tests, the results showed a fair hydroxyapatite distribution in the implant pore surfaces as much as a part which was retained inside the PMMA inner porous. The average scaffold pore sizes obtained was around 250.0µm and the diameter shrinkage of 4.0% was observed in all samples. This study demonstrated that the functional gradient structure composite studied can be a good candidate for cranial bone implants due to its good bone conductivity and biocompatibility.
Marcelo Prado and Cecília Zavaglia
T. H. S. Sousa et al., "Concept of a Bioactive Implant with Functional Gradient Structure ", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 396-398, pp. 221-224, 2009