Use of Ceramic Scaffolds as Inductors of Extramedullar Hematopoiesis
The extracellular matrix in skeletal tissue besides being responsible for its structure and function also provides key regulatory signals for cell proliferation and differentiation by interacting directly with cell receptors, controlling the diffusion of soluble growth factors. Immature bone marrow cells can migrate through capillaries to systemic circulation as well as return to bone marrow. This phenomenon is the biological basis for bone marrow transplant. The mechanisms that control the migration and the return of these immature bone marrow cells are still to be described in a generally accepted model. Thirty days-old Wistar rats were employed as recipients for the implantation of ceramic blocks or demineralized femur diaphysis. The material was implanted subcutaneously at the dorsum. The rats were euthanized with CO2 at 15, 40 and 68 days after implantation. The whole area of implantation was harvested from skin deep up to the muscle. Liver, spleen, lungs, femurs and the vertebral spine, ribs and sternum were also harvested. The harvested material was fixed in Millonig formalin and decalcified with EDTA, if applicable. The material was then progressively dehydrated in alcohol, immersed in xylol, impregnated and embedded in paraffin. The paraffin blocks were then sliced in 5µm sections with a microtome, stained in Haematoxilin – Eosin, Lennert's Giemsa and Gomori's reticulin for histological analysis under brightfield optical microscopy. All implants produced an intense fibroblastic reaction, angiogenesis and subsequent modulation into a loose stroma. However, hematopoesis was not observed. Implantation of endogenous haematopoetic cells in an inductive stroma, which might propitiate hematopoesis is a model scarcely studied. Experiments such as the one described here might be good models for understanding the sequence of events leading to formation of the stroma and implantation and differentiation of haematopoetic precursors.
Marcelo Prado and Cecília Zavaglia
H. Schechtman et al., "Use of Ceramic Scaffolds as Inductors of Extramedullar Hematopoiesis", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 396-398, pp. 715-718, 2009