Effect of Sintering Time on the Phase Composition in PFN Ceramics Prepared by Sol-Gel Process
Lead iron niobate Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 (PFN) ceramics were prepared using sol-gel synthesis by mixing acetates Pb and Fe with Nb-ethylene glycol-tartarate (Pechini) complex at 80°C, calcination of gels at 600°C and sintering at 1150°C for various times. The metastable pyrochlore phase Pb3Nb4O13 in stoichiometric precursor was partially decomposed to perovskite phase Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 in ceramics sintered at temperature of 1150°C for 2, 4 and 6 hours. Excess of Pb in molar ratio (Pb:Fe:Nb = 1.2:0.5:0.5) caused the increase of the content of the perovskite phase (~50 vol.%) in nonstoichiometric PFN ceramics sintered at 1150°C for 6 hours while the decrease in perovskite phase content was found in stoichiometric PFN ceramics (~16 vol.%). In microstructures of PFN ceramics sintered at 1150°C for different times, the bimodal grain size distribution was observed with small spherical grains of perovskite phase and larger octahedral grains of pyrochlore phase. EDX analysis confirm that complex types of pyrochlore phases that differ in iron content were present in ceramics.
J. Dusza, R. Danzer, R. Morrell and G.D. Quinn
H. Bruncková et al., "Effect of Sintering Time on the Phase Composition in PFN Ceramics Prepared by Sol-Gel Process", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 409, pp. 317-321, 2009