Threshold Value of Particle Concentration in EPD: Experimental Evidence with TiO2 Organic Suspensions
This study was triggered by our experience on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with different suspension systems showing evidence of a particle concentration threshold, below which no deposit was formed. In this study, the role of particle concentration in the mechanism of EPD was investigated with a model system, consisting of isopropanol suspensions with TiO2 nanosized particles (d50 = 130 nm). The investigated concentration range was 0.01 - 0.4 vol% TiO2. Constant voltage EPD tests with variable particle concentration were performed for 1 min under different applied voltages (25 - 300 V corresponding to 62.5 - 750 V/cm). A longer deposition time (30 min) was tested for a lower concentration value (0.003 vol% TiO2). The deposition process was evaluated in situ by means of the current measured during EPD. The deposits obtained were characterized by weight and profile measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results confirmed the finding of a lower limit value of particle concentration, determining a threshold in the formation of an EPD coating. Above this threshold, proportionality between deposited mass and particle concentration was observed, in agreement with the equation of Hamaker. Below this threshold, the proportionality was lost with evidence of a lack of coating formation. A possible interpretation for this experimental finding was provided.
A. R. Boccaccini, O. van der Biest, R. Clasen, T. Uchikoshi
S. Radice et al., "Threshold Value of Particle Concentration in EPD: Experimental Evidence with TiO2 Organic Suspensions", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 412, pp. 51-56, 2009