Electrophoretic Deposition: Fundamentals and Applications III

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Authors: Jana Grosse-Brauckmann, Tanja Damjanović, Christos Argirusis
Abstract: The use of carbon fibre reinforced carbon composites in oxidizing atmospheres is limited to temperatures below 400 °C. To benefit from their excellent mechanical strength that is still preserved at high temperatures, suitable oxidation protection coating systems have to be developed. Composites which are capillary infiltrated with Si and coated with SiC via chemical vapour deposition show significantly enhanced oxidation resistance. For the increase of service temperature above 1300 °C, high temperature stable materials with low oxygen diffusivities such as yttrium silicates have to complement the SiC coating. The electrophoretic deposition performed under constant current conditions leads to relatively high green densities and therefore good sinterability of the applied coatings. In this work we present the preparation of suspensions, their characterization regarding particle size and electrophoretic mobility for yttrium silicate powder prepared by the solid state method. Depending on particle charge and conductivity of the investigated suspensions iodine is employed to increase particle charge. The use of current densities between 0.5-5mA/cm² leads to smooth and homogeneous layers. Layers sintered as low as 1400 °C for 2h already show promising protection of the C/C-Si-SiC substrate during thermogravimetric analysis.
Authors: Hirokazu Munakata, Suguru Omori, Kiyoshi Kanamura
Abstract: Anode for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was fabricated on Nafion 117 membrane by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. An ethanol suspension containing Pt-Ru/C and Nafion ionomer was utilized, in which Pt-Ru/C and Nafion ionomer formed composite particles. The prepared electrode was tightly attached to the membrane without mechanical pressing and heat treatment. The electrode composition, i.e., the ratio between Pt-Ru/C and ionomer in the electrode, was controllable by Nafion content in the suspension, and strongly influenced on the DMFC performance. Accordingly, the anode with ionomer fraction of 26% exhibited the highest performance, which was more than twice as high as the performance attained in a standard electrode fabrication (hot press method).
Authors: Kirsten Moritz, Tassilo Moritz
Abstract: Planar zirconia green bodies with unidirectionally aligned pore channels were prepared by an electrophoretic deposition method using an effect which is usually disadvantageous for the EPD from aqueous suspensions: the formation of gas bubbles by electrolysis. Aqueous ZrO2 suspensions containing acetic acid to enable a sufficient gas generation were used for the EPD experiments. The influence of selected parameters – electrolyte content, applied voltage, and kind of deposition electrode – on the pore structure has been investigated. The green bodies were sintered at 1450 °C in air. Optical microscopy and X-ray computer tomography (CT) were used for characterising the porous structures. CT-investigations have the advantage of a three-dimensional characterisation of the samples by a non-destructive method. The resulting pore structure depended to a high degree on the experimental conditions of the EPD. The kind of the deposition electrode – platinum foil or platinum gauze on foil – had a strong influence on the arrangement of the pores. The EPD on Pt-foil led to randomly arranged pores, whereas very regular pore structures were obtained by the use of Pt-gauze.
Authors: Li Zhang, Anand Krishna Kanjarla, Jef Vleugels, Omer Van der Biest
Abstract: The development of texture was studied during electrophoretic deposition in alumina suspensions containing plate shaped alumina particles. The mechanism of platelet orientation during EPD was examined with respect to the influence of the electric field, gravity and hydrodynamic forces. This was realized by using two different deposition cells, with vertically or horizontally positioned deposition electrode. The texture of the green deposit was further enhanced during sintering by templated grain growth in which the platelet shaped alumina particles were growing at the expense of the fine grained matrix. The sharp ‘fiber texture’ obtained after templated grain growth during sintering of the deposit was characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD).
Authors: Jana Grosse-Brauckmann, Günter Borchardt, Christos Argirusis
Abstract: . In the present work we used the sol-gel process to prepare Y2SiO5 precursor sols suitable for electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The sol synthesis was performed through the controlled hydrolysis of alkoxide solutions of tetraethoxysilane and yttriumoxoisopropoxide. During sol development emphasis was put on characterization of particles size and zeta potential of the formed aggregates. We succeeded in synthesizing a clear sol containing polymeric aggregates with acceptable particle charge. The electrophoretic deposition on glassy carbon or C/C-SiC slabs led to homogenous layers. At low sol concentrations micro cracks in the deposited layers were observed whereas higher concentrations led to thin and dense layers. During constant current EPD a constant voltage was recorded indicating that the deposited layer does not lead to an increase in resistivity in this kind of EPD system.
Authors: Cornelia Bellmann, Anja Caspari, Karina Grundke
Abstract: It is well known that colloid-chemical aspects, such as agglomeration processes, wetting and adsorption phenomena, have a decisive influence on the separation behaviour and coating quality of a composite plating. The following processing steps for electrocodeposition have to be considered: preparation of a stable dispersion of the particles in the electrolytic bath, transportation of the particles to the metal surface, adhesion of the particles onto the surface, incorporation of the particles in the metal matrix. Celis [1,2] and Hyashi [3] could show that ion adsorption onto the particle surface is very important for electrophoretic mobility and layer quality. On the other site, Fransaer and others [2,4] showed that surface free energy plays an important role for incorporation of particles in a metal matrix. They could demonstrate that hydrophilic particles do not make contact with the electrode, probably due to repulsive hydration forces. Hydrophobic particles make contact with the electrode, due to an attractive hydrophobic force. Hence it is important to have a method for estimating the hydrophilic/ hydrophobic surface properties of such particles to select a suitable surface modification strategy. A direct way to measure the surface free energy of solid particles is not available so far. Therefore, it is generally accepted to use the phenomenon of capillary penetration of liquids into porous media to determine the wetting properties of particles by measuring the penetration velocity of well-defined liquids in a powder packing. The kinetics of penetration correlates mainly to the geometric structure of the powder packing and the wettability of the particles. By using the equation-of-state approach for solid-liquid interfacial tensions the solid surface free energy of the particles can be determined [5]. In this paper, we show the usefulness of capillary penetration experiments and discuss some parameters that should be considered for the interpretation of the data. Ion adsorption processes, on the other hand, can be described by electrokinetic measurements [6,7].
Authors: Iman Azarian Borojeni, Babak Raissi, Amir Maghsoudipour, Mahmood Kazemzad, Ehsan Marzbanrad
Abstract: In this research aging behaviors of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in non aqueous suspensions, namely ethanol, isopropanol, n-propanol, acetylacetone and the mixture of ethanol-acetylacetone were investigated. For this purpose, electrical conductivity, electrophoretic mobility and suspension stability during aging time (6 to 7 days) were evaluated. Except for the ethanol-acetyl acetone mixture, each suspension contained 0 to 0.8 g/L iodine. It was revealed that, the alcoholic suspensions indicated lower conductivity in comparison with acetylacetone suspensions. However, acetylacetone suspension showed lower conductivity variation with time. Although iodine could improve the electrophoretic mobility of ethanol and acetylacetone suspensions, it had little effect on electrophoretic mobility of isopropanol and n-propanol suspensions. Also, it was indicated that iodine as a dispersant was not helpful for alcoholic suspensions stability. It was concluded that the mixture of acetylacetone-ethanol suspension was the best candidate in this study for electrophoretic deposition of YSZ, owing to its little behavior variation with the aging time, low conductivity and high electrophoretic mobility. High quality crack-free layers were electrophoretically deposited from this suspension on the substrate by applying 50 V/cm electrical field.
Authors: Saki Sakakibara, Tohru Suzuki, Atsunori Matsuda, Tetsuo Uchikoshi
Abstract: The surface modification of SiC powder with an alumina precursor was achieved by a sol-gel method to apply the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique to the shaping of the SiC powder. The isoelectric point of the surface-modified SiC powder with sol-gel-derived alumina precursor was shifted to around pH 9, which is close to that of alumina. The alumina-coated SiC deposited on a cathodic substrate by EPD. The green compact of surface-modified SiC powder was sintered by hot pressing in an argon atmosphere at 2000oC.
Authors: Shigeru Horii, Masayuki Sakurai, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Ryoji Funahashi, Tohru Suzuki, Yoshio Sakka, Hiraku Ogino, Jun Ichi Shimoyama, Kohji Kishio
Abstract: We report the fabrication of p- and n-type thermoelectric oxide thick films laminated by insulating alumina using electrophoretic deposition and their thermoelectric performance. From the experimental studies performed for optimization of the thermoelectric performance in the p- and n-type mono-layers, the control of sintering temperature for densification and the usage of fine powder were effective for reducing the electrical resistivity of thermoelectric layers. These findings could be applicable also to the triple-layered thick films. When one assumes that two triple-layered films of p- and n-type thermoelectric materials are combined as unicouple of thermoelectric module, an estimated maximum output power was 20 times higher than a measured maximum output power of a previously reported multi-layered thermoelectric module. It was found that precise control of the microstructure in the thermoelectric layers is indispensable for development of the thermoelectric modules based on the electrophoretic deposition.
Authors: Bram Neirinck, Jan Fransaer, Omer Van der Biest, Jef Vleugels
Abstract: Recent developments demonstrated that liquid templates in the form of solid particles stabilized emulsions can be used to produce porous materials. The use of such emulsions offers the possibility to control the porous properties over a wide range of pore sizes and porosities for a variety of materials. In addition, the liquid nature of the template enables the formed products to be sintered without a low temperature debinding step. In this work, the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of these liquid templates for the production of porous alumina is reported. The experimental parameters needed to obtain stable emulsions, their influence on the final porous properties, as well as the influence of the deposition parameters are discussed.

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