Freeze-thaw damage is one of the most representative damages in concrete durability. Commonly, freezing and thawing tests are conducted to investigate the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete, and the loss of dynamic modulus of concrete is regarded as the failure criterion. However, the research on the evolution of concrete strength during the damage process is still not enough when subjected to freezing and thawing. In this study, the concrete freeze-thaw deterioration was considered as isotropic elastic damage, and relative variation functions of dynamic modulus and Poisson’s ratio with freeze-thaw cycles were set up. Based on damage mechanics, the Ottosen failure surface model with four parameters was established to indicate the relationship between the concrete freeze-thaw failure surface and freeze-thaw cycles. Then the four-parameter failure surface model was set into ADINA finite element software program for secondary development to investigate the strength properties of concrete component under freeze-thaw action. The relationship between load and deflection of concrete was analyzed and simulated after 0, 25 and 50 freeze-thaw cycles. The simulated and experimental results are basically identical, which demonstrates that this finite element simulation is a feasible way to analyze and evaluate the performance of concrete structures in cold regions.