Design of Hierarchically Porous Materials for Bone Tissue Regeneration
Mesoporous materials synthesized using a polymer templating route have attracted considerable attention in the field of bone tissue regeneration because their unique pore textural properties (high specific surface area, pore volume and controllable mesopore structure) can promote rapid bone formation. In addition, their potential use as a drug delivery system has been highlighted. The scaffolds in bone tissue regeneration should contain 3D interconnected pores ranging in size from 10 to 1000 μm for successful cell migration, nutrient delivery, bone in-growth and vascularization. Meso-sized pores are too small to carry out these roles, even though mesoporous materials have attractive functionalities for bone tissue regeneration. Therefore, a technique linking mesoporous materials with the general scaffolds is required. This paper reviews recent studies relating the development of new porous scaffolds containing mesopores for using in bone tissue regeneration. All the suggested methods, such as a combination of polymer templating methods and rapid prototyping technique can provide hierarchically 3D porous bioactive scaffolds with well interconnected pore structures in the nano to macro size range, good molding capability, biocompatibility, and bioactivity. The new fabrication techniques suggested can potentially be used to design ideal scaffolds in bone tissue regeneration.
M. Vallet-Regí and M. Vila
H. S. Yun "Design of Hierarchically Porous Materials for Bone Tissue Regeneration", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 441, pp. 139-153, 2010