Generating Porous Ceramic Scaffolds: Processing and Properties
For tissue regeneration in medicine three-dimensional scaffolds with specific characteristics are required. A very important property is a high, interconnecting porosity to enable tissue ingrowth into the scaffold. Pore size distribution and pore geometry should be adapted to the respective tissue. Additionally, the scaffolds should have a basic stability for handling during implantation, which is provided by ceramic scaffolds. Various methods to produce such ceramic 3D scaffolds exist. In this paper conventional and new fabrication techniques are reviewed. Conventional methods cover the replica of synthetic and natural templates, the use of sacrificial templates and direct foaming. Rapid prototyping techniques are the new methods listed in this work. They include fused deposition modelling, robocasting and dispense-plotting, ink jet printing, stereolithography, 3D-printing, selective laser sintering/melting and a negative mould technique also involving rapid prototyping. The various fabrication methods are described and the characteristics of the resulting scaffolds are pointed out. Finally, the techniques are compared to find out their disadvantages and advantages.
M. Vallet-Regí and M. Vila
U. Deisinger "Generating Porous Ceramic Scaffolds: Processing and Properties", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 441, pp. 155-179, 2010