The traction tonnage has important effect on train longitudinal impact. An integrated model of train longitudinal dynamics was established based on simulation and test results. The effect of the traction tonnage on train longitudinal dynamics was investigated through modeling different types of heavy-haul trains. The model was validated by using measured longitudinal force time histories from on-track tests. Case study shows that the traction tonnage has significant influence on train longitudinal impact; Train longitudinal force increases with traction tonnage. The relationships between the maximum coupler forces (including tensile and compressive forces) and traction tonnage were obtained with the least square method for cases of train under emergency baking and release condition. The established train longitudinal dynamics model provides a platform for car body and coupler structure optimization and train control.