Modern infrastructures such as viaducts, bullet train (Shinkansen) elevated tracks, and subway facilities in addition to houses and buildings were greatly damaged at the Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake that hit heavily populated urban cities in 1995. As a learning lesson from this earthquake, seismic countermeasures for civil infrastructures have been rapidly reviewed and implemented. In this study, damage of bridge structures due to this strong earthquake was reported and the current effective seismic retrofit of concrete columns and bridge-falling prevention systems by use of concrete polymer composites in Japan were introduced. Two main seismic countermeasure methods were introduced and discussed: Steel plate and fiber jacketing methods for existing reinforced concrete piers/columns, and unseating devices for bridge-falling prevention. Both these countermeasures use epoxy resin as essential component.