Effects of Different Particles Sizes of Graphite on the Engineering Properties of Graphites/Polypropylene Composites on Injection Molding Aplication
The injection molding of polymer composite is one of the promising and practical methods in the manufacturing of bipolar plates in mass production. Graphite filler with higher loading concentration is mainly used for this purpose. The particle size and composition (wt. %) of graphite filler material influences on the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of composite materials. The main challenge is the reduction of flow ability during injection of high load filler material. Flow ability of feedstock material is an important factor in the process of injection molding. This paper presents a development of the rheology approach on the effect of particle size in material flow ability occurs in the injection molding process. Polypropylene (PP) as polymer matrix and graphite as conductive filler mixed together with different size to form feedstock material. Graphite purchase from local Asbury Graphite Mills, Inc, grade 3243 with particle size in average after sieve of ≤40, ≤100, and ≤150 μm. Proportions of polymer matrix and graphite at (PP / G) 25 / 75 wt. %. Mixing of graphite in PP matrix is done using an internal mixer (Thermo Haake) at 50 rpm, temperature at 200 oC. Rheology behaviors of graphite composite were measured using a capillary rheometer type Shimadzu CFT-500D, with a diameter 1 mm and length 10 mm. The fracture surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrical conductivity of composite materials was measured by the four point probe. The hardness property measurement of conductive material composite was performed using a Dynamic ultra micro hardness tester using a Vickers typed diamond indenter. The results indicate that the level of viscosity and shear rate on all eligible mixed particle size capable of injectable. The properties of composite materials is the highest in three mix particle size (40/100/150 μm) for the electrical conductivity of 9.13 S.cm-1 and hardness at 34.3 HV. Viscosity of 56 Pa.s at a temperature of 200 oC and shear rates generated in 3231 s-1. The highest electrical conductivity for a single particle size is 49.2 S.cm-1 at 150 μm and hardness of Vickers to 47.2 HV at 100 um. The highest electrical conductivity and hardness due to the packing density and reinforcement different particle size.
S.M. Sapuan, F. Mustapha, D.L. Majid, Z. Leman, A.H.M. Ariff, M.K.A. Ariffin, M.Y.M. Zuhri, M.R. Ishak and J. Sahari
Iswandi et al., "Effects of Different Particles Sizes of Graphite on the Engineering Properties of Graphites/Polypropylene Composites on Injection Molding Aplication", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 471-472, pp. 109-114, 2011