One-dimensional nanostructures, like nanofibers, nanobelts, nanotubes, nanorods have been regarded as a new class of nanomaterials that have been attracted as the most promising building blocks for verity applications in the last few years. As one type of important structures with intensive research efforts have been devoted to the production and investigation of the metal oxides. Metal oxide nanofibers have different potential to play an essential role in a series of application such as optics, nanoelectronics, catalysts, sensors, storage, optoelectonics, and full cell. Copper oxide nanostructures is a promising semiconductor material with potential applications in photochemical, electrochemical, electrochromic especially in water splitting, catalysts, and fabrication of photovoltaic devices. In this paper electrospinning method via sol-gel was used to fabricate copper oxide nanofibers. Copper oxide nanofibers with different morphology were synthesized by different calcinations temperature. In this paper, effective parameters such as voltage, concentration of precursor and different calcinations temperature were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET).