Abstract: This article will highlight various aspects of the production process of high performance active elements made of ultra high-strength steels. Focus is put on the processing of thick sheet metal regarding hot forming by means of punching, embossing, and forging processes as well as on thermo-mechanical treatment. Due to the material thickness of the semi-finished parts/blanks used and owing to the high strength of the materials (Rm > 2600 MPa) current production techniques and parameters from the field of thin sheet metal can only be limitedly be transferred and have therefore been specially investigated for this application.
Abstract: Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) alloys are nowadays widely employed in order to produce lightweight automotive and aeronautical components and to gain fuel saving and reduced emissions. However, the joining of Al and Mg alloys poses well known technical problems and the application of conventional joining techniques, e.g. welding, may be ineffective. On the other hand, adhesive bonding may be considered as a candidate replacement of the traditional techniques and for this reason it has been recently proposed as an alternative technology for Al/Mg joints. In particular, it has been demonstrated that adhesive bonding, in conjunction with state-of-the-art surface treatments, can provide Al/Mg joint with enhanced strength. However, in order to evaluate the potential of adhesive bonding to outperform the conventional joining techniques a systematic comparative analysis is needed. Therefore, the aim of this work is to supplement the existing studies on Al/Mg bonding providing a comparative analysis between Al/Mg joints prepared using gas metal arc (MIG) welding, riveting and adhesive bonding. Probably, the use of adhesive bonding as complementary joining process will be the industrial answer to the hybrid joints performance needs.
Abstract: When manufacturing joints of dissimilar materials thermal technologies as welding reach their limits. Impact welding by electromagnetic forming is a promising alternative because undesired heating of the parts and related disadvantages are avoided. In this process impact parameters need to be adjusted to each specific joining task, but cannot be settled directly. Thus, a two-step methodology is suggested for the process design: First the influence of the impact parameters and the surface preparation on the joint properties is investigated using a model experiment. Joint properties are characterized by metallographic investigations. Parallel to this, the influence of the adjustable process parameters and the equipment on the workpiece acceleration and the impact properties is analyzed. Then the results of both investigation paths are combined and conclusions regarding a target-oriented adjusting of the impact parameters via the process parameters are drawn. In the paper first results considering the model experiment and the analysis of the electromagnetic expansion process are presented and joints manufactured by electromagnetic expansion are characterized.
Abstract: Clinching is a mechanical joining technique which involves severe local plastic deformation of two or more sheet metal parts resulting in a permanent mechanical interlock or joint. The required forming load and energy can be determined with the aid of the finite element method. However, a good knowledge of the elasto-plastic properties is of utmost importance to perform a sufficiently accurate simulation. This paper presents two alternative material tests to identify the hardening behaviour of sheet metal beyond the point of maximum uniform elongation. In addition, the material tests were applied to DC05 and the identified material behaviour is evaluated through the prediction of the forming load during clinching.
Abstract: The required number of punched and blanked parts in the electronic industry, such as leadframes, contact pins or plugs often reach several million pieces. According to this, the production process has been sped up to frequencies up to 2000 parts per minute. At this production rate parts of thin steel or copper sheets are produced with high-speed stamping presses and blanking tools. Because of the high gating velocities in the blanking tool there is a recurring acceleration at the moment, when the blank holder contacts the sheet metal. A second shock in the blanking tool arises, when the sheet cracks. This is also known as the impact shock during the blanking process. Trough these two impulses and through the cycle of the plunger movement a periodic oscillation arises in the tool. Horizontal vibrations can lead to an undefined position between punches and die-plate, while vertical movement leads to increased wear because of friction forces between the blanked surface and the lateral area of the punches. The goal of this project was to minimize these oscillations in cutting tools by the usage of lightweight materials in the flux of forces. An experimental cutting tool was designed with alternative top and bottom plates for the comparison of the oscillation status in the cutting process when using plates of steel, aluminium or magnesium. The centre plate of the tool remains constant. Experiments were accomplished for several velocities and tool setups with different plate materials. To determine the influence of the materials with different density and elasticity acceleration, force and acoustic emission sensors were integrated in the tool. The set of problems was investigated by analyzing the measured data and by determining the wear in practical tests.
Abstract: Laser welding is known for its low heat input compared to arc welding methods. This could enable laser welding of sheet metals with lighter fastening solutions and less time-consuming tack welding alternatives. A feasibility study was carried out to study four different corner joint types for 2 mm thick cold rolledcold-rolled steel sheet by using filler-free laser welding. The aim of the research was to get more experimental knowledge about the laser welding of corner joints. Also possible benefits concerning faster manufacturing times and smaller costs by developing fastening applications for small batch laser welding was to be studied in practice. The 170 mm long joints were welded without air gap or pressing. All corner joint types proved to be weldable with a continuous wave Yb:YAG diode-pumped disk laser. It was also found during the With the experiment it was also found out that laser welding enables the use of light and inexpensive fasteners such as magnetic holders in steadinstead of traditional clamps and fixturing. With some joint types, the insufficient fastening power of magnetic fasteners against distortions was compensated by making a spot-like laser tack weld toat the end of the weld before welding the actual seam. This showed that it is possible to make precise and small tack welds with a laser and to use laser -tacking in sheet metal assembly.
Abstract: The increasing use of new materials with varying thicknesses within the automotive industry creates high demands on joining elements such as staking fasteners. Simultaneously statements about the feasibility of the design with joining elements already in the early stage of the development are necessary. The challenge is to define suitable element geometry, tool geometry and process parameters. To meet those requirements, a good understanding of the staking process is inevitable. According to the state of the art the examinations regarding the performance of staking fasteners under different conditions are totally conducted experimentally. This trial-and-error procedure leads to an extensive financial effort and to long development times for new elements. It is furthermore not possible to observe all influences of different process parameters. In the field of mechanical engineering the use of numerical simulation for complex constructions is a common technique. This paper deals with the applicability of the finite element method (FEM) on the joining of sheet metals with staking fasteners. In this matter the FEM is used to get scientific insights in the staking process and is also used to identify influencing variables and their interactions.
Abstract: The UUltra -high -strength (UHS) steels are used in booms, transport vechicles and other light weight structures. It is well -known that it is possible to achieve a strong weld statically, as the base material, by using laser welding as a weld method . The design strength of the light weight structure is often rather high. In the case of booms and transport vechilevehicles, there can be very high dynamic forces in the structure. Therefore it is necessary to study how much fatigue stress the weld seam can resist and at the same time find the optimal welding parameters. The 4 mm bainitic-martensitic UHS steel was welded with laser without filler material to lasercut seam edges by using different weld parameters. Argon gas was blown by pipe onr coaxial nozzle near the key hole and through a 60 mm gas nozzle after the keyhole. Also, the root side of the weld was shielded with argon. The welds were tested by using the bending fatigue test. The test stresses were 800 MPa and 700 MPa. The fatigue strength results showed that with the laser welded seams, the number of cycles wereas about three times lower than with the base material. The fatigue strength was slightly better in welds which were welded with lower energy input. In the case of the weld seam which was welded with lowest energy input by using 300 mm optics, there was some incomplete penetration due to tooexcessively high surface roughness ofat the weld seam edges.
Abstract: The required technological quality of the blanked products can be achieved through operations of fine blanking. This allows for obtaining products with improved dimensional accuracy and good quality cut-surface. In order to cut products from soft materials, including aluminium and its alloys, the methods of fine blanking with upsetting and fine blanking with reduced clearance are typically employed. The study presents the results of numerical modelling of the fine blanking process for a disk made of 1-millimetre sheet aluminium EN AW-1070A. The goal of the numerical simulations was to evaluate the effect of clearance between blanking die and the punch, and the impact of V-ring indenter on stress and strain distribution in the shearing zone.
Abstract: In many applications, negative effects of residual stresses in the material stemming from the production process, are regularly encountered. These residual stresses in cold-rolled steel tubes are mainly due to two mechanisms: (i) the rolling of the flat plate into a circular cross-section and (ii) afterwards closing this section with a weld bead. This research focuses on the residual stresses due to the welding process. In an experimental setup abstraction is made of the real production process of the tube. A finite element model is built of this experimental setup. Validation of the welding simulations is done by comparing the strain evolution in both the experiment and the simulation. In this validation process, sometimes a discrepancy between the measured strain evolution and the one obtained from the numerical analysis is seen. In this contribution it is numerically investigated how initial residual stresses affect the thermal strain evolution in the tube during the welding process. This is done in two ways: firstly an initial stress field in hoop direction, based on the spring back of the tube when cut is taken as the reference state and secondly the stress/strain state after the first weld is used in stead of the virgin material state. The conclusion for both assumptions is that the strain evolution during the welding is affected by the initial stress/strain state of the material.