Abstract: During the last years welded titanium components have been extensively applied in aeronautical and aerospace industries because of their high specific strength and corrosion resistance properties. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process, currently industrially utilized for difficult to be welded or “unweldable” aluminum and magnesium alloys, able to overcome the drawbacks of traditional fusion welding techniques. When titanium alloys are concerned, additional problems arise as the need for very high strength and high temperature resistant tools, gas shield protection and high stiffness machines. Additionally, the process is characterized by an elevated sensitivity to temperature variations, which, in turn, depends on the main operative parameters. Numerical simulation represents the optimal solution in order to perform an effective process optimization with affordable costs. In this paper, a fully 3D FEM model for the FSW process is proposed, that is thermo-mechanically coupled and with rigid-viscoplastic material behavior. Experimental clamping parts are modeled and the thermal loads are calculated at the varying of the cooling strategy. Finally, the effectiveness of the cooling systems is evaluated through experimental tests.
Abstract: The thickness effect on formability of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet has been widely investigated by means of uniaxial tensile tests, performed in the temperature range from 250 to 350°C, with strain rates varying from 10-4 to 10-1 s-1, using samples with different thickness values (from 1.5 to 3.2 mm). A preliminary microstructural study has shown that grain size and morphology are not significantly affected by both sheet thickness and heating just before the deformation step. The experimental results of tensile tests have been analysed in terms of flow curve shape, flow stress and strain to failure levels. They show that, in general, flow stress increases and ductility decreases with increasing sheet thickness even if such influence is strongly related to the temperature and strain rate conditions Finally, the analysis of the Zener-Hollomon parameter vs. peak flow stress data showed that the same mechanisms are operative in the investigated sheets.
Abstract: A study was carried out to investigate the effect of governing metal thickness (GMT) on weld quality and strength of resistance spot welded (RSW) AA5754 aluminium. Quasi-static joint strengths were evaluated for 27 different joint stack-ups in three test geometries: lap-shear, coachpeel and cross-tension; whilst micro examination was conducted on some of the samples to assess weld quality. The results derived from over 1000 samples show the importance of GMT and its various effects: the GMT has a significant effect on welding quality and joint strength by controlling the attainable weld diameter, regardless of stack-ups; depending on loading conditions, its effect may differ.
Abstract: The Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) of textured polycrystalline sheet metals were investigated using micro-macro averaging and two types of grain-interaction models: Full-Constraint (FC) and Self-consistent (SC) schemes, in conjunction with the Marciniak–Kuczynski (MK) approach. By referring to previous FLD studies based on the FC-Taylor model ─ Wu and coworkers [Effect of an initial cube texture on sheet metal formability, Materials Science and Engineering A, 364:182–7, 2004] and Inal and coworkers [Forming Limit comparison for FCC and BCC sheets, International Journal of Plasticity, 21:1255-1266, 2005] ─ we found that the MK-FC strategy leads to unrealistic results. In the former case, the researchers found that an increasing spread about the cube texture produces unexpectedly high limit strains. In the latter work, Inal et al. predicted a remarkably low forming-limit curve for a FCC material and an extremely high forming-limit curve for a BCC material, in the biaxial-stretching range. Our investigations show that simulations performed with the MK-VPSC approach successfully predict more reliable results. For the BCC structure, the MK-VPSC predictions do not give the extreme values predicted when calculations are carried out with the MK-FC approach. In the FCC case, with decreasing textural intensity ─ from the ideal cube texture, through dispersions around the cube texture with increasing cut-off angles, to a random texture ─ a smooth transition in increasing limit strains was obtained. Furthermore, these results suggest that the selected constitutive model is critical for predicting the behavior of materials that exhibit a qualitative change in crystallographic texture, and hence, evolve anisotropically during mechanical deformation.
Abstract: The substitution of conventional materials such as aluminium alloys and steels with the lightest structural metal magnesium and its alloys can yield significant weight saving in the transportation industry and hence, reduce vehicle weight and greenhouse gas emissions. Producing magnesium sheets by conventional hot rolling is expensive due to the large number of rolling passes to final gauge and annealing steps at elevated temperatures between the rolling passes. Twin roll casting is a well established processing route for aluminium sheets which can reduce the necessary rolling passes to a bare minimum to reduce the production costs. This process is receiving increasing attention for the production of magnesium sheets. This study reveals first hand results of sheet metal forming experiments on magnesium sheets rolled from twin roll cast strip as well as conventional DC cast slabs. Two different alloys, AZ31 (Mg-3Al-1Zn-Mn) and rare earth element containing ZE10 (Mg-1Zn-RE) were investigated. It is known that these alloys show significant differences in the microstructure development during conventional rolling as a result of recrystallisation. For hot rolled AZ31, distinct textures are formed with the majority of basal planes oriented in the sheet plane and hence, unfavourably for basal slip. Conventionally rolled ZE10 commonly shows a much weaker texture. Forming limit diagrams are presented and discussed with respect to the initial texture of the sheets. Strain response to various strain paths and plastic anisotropy are evaluated. Results of twin roll cast sheets are compared with conventionally hot rolled sheet of the same alloys. Competitive formability can be achieved at 200°C for all tested sheets. While conventionally rolled sheets show a generally higher formability than their twin roll cast counterparts, ZE10 outperforms AZ31 for both processing routes.
Abstract: The construction industry uses cold-formed steel (CFS) sheets in the form of galvanised thin-walled profiles and corrugated sheets. In the past decade, CFS profiles have been competing with their hot-rolled counterparts as primary structural members of industrial halls, office buildings and residential housing of up to 3-4 storeys. The spans and column heights achieved with CFS profiles are ever larger. Due to the large slenderness of these members, adequate strength and stability are necessary, as well as reliability in design. Thin-walled members go through buckling during all stages of their working life. Local buckling appears at loads sometimes much lower than the design load. Distortional buckling seriously reduces the member resistance. It interacts with warping and lateral-torsional buckling, being significant for these asymmetric open sections. To restrict these effects, builders employ double sections - usually two standard cold-formed shapes bolted together to form a built-up section. These sections have the advantages of symmetry, higher stability and strength. The design of built-up members involves many uncertainties - although the European standard includes guidelines on the prediction of local, distortional and global buckling, the partial integrity and interaction between the parts of the composed members is still not studied. To study the actual behaviour, built-up members are tested in bending. An optical device for 3D motion analysis measures the displacement of points of interest on the specimen. Two interacting cameras use parallax to obtain the position of an arbitrary number of reflective markers glued to the specimen. The device tracks the movement of the markers in a 3D coordinate system without any contact with the specimen. Standard displacement transducers measure vertical displacements to validate the results. The paper gives an appraisal of the applicability of the method, a summary of the difficulties faced and the outcome of the test campaign.
Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology for the determination of the biaxial stress – strain curves by hydraulic bulging tests with circular die. In order to validate the methodology, the authors have performed both stepwise and continuous bulging experiments. The pressure, polar height and curvature radius have been measured in different stages of the deformation process or continuously recorded during the test.
Abstract: In the hydraulic bulge test, flow curves are determined by applying a hydrostatic pressure to one side of a clamped sheet metal specimen, which bulges freely into a circular cavity under the pressure. The pressure and various data such as bulge height, curvature and equivalent strain at the pole are recorded and used to calculate the flow curve of the specimen material using analytical equations based on membrane theory. In the determination of the flow curve, the elastic behavior of the specimen, the elastic-plastic transition and bending effects are neglected, and the flow curves calculated this way are affected by these simplifications. An alternative to this procedure is an inverse analysis, which proceeds by searching for a flow curve that minimizes the difference between computed and measured data, e.g. bulge height vs. pressure. An inverse analysis based on a finite element model takes into account elastic and bending effects but since it involves the solution of an optimization problem, it is not clear whether it yields more accurate results than membrane theory. The objective of this paper is to compare the ‘identifiability’ of a given flow curve from the bulge test by direct identification based on membrane theory and by inverse analysis with different objective functions to be minimized. Using a re-identification procedure, it is shown that an inverse analysis can improve the results of the direct identification if a suitable objective function is chosen.
Abstract: In this work laser ablation was used for the determination of residual stress of a formed plate. Manufacturing processes, like bending, create residual stresses in the product and those can be very disadvantageous for fatigue durability. Residual stresses that are generated during the manu-facturing of products can cause distortions, dimensional errors or can even break the products. The research material was ultra-high-strength steel (UHSS) with a yield strength of 1100 MPa. Speci-mens with a 90 degree bent angle were made by air bending using a press brake. Air bending causes variable residual stress patterns in the cross section of the material. The residual stresses of the formed area were determined by removing material and measuring strains caused by the release of stresses. A slot with the width of 1 mm has been manufactured parallel to the edge, both on the outer and on the inner side of the bend. True residual stress distribution can be calculated from the measured strains. A pumped 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 ablation laser, whose pulse length is 90 ns, was used for the removal of material. This process creates a negligible heat affected zone (HAZ) and laser ablation doesn’t increase stresses in the specimen. The results were compared with those ob-tained when slots were produced by milling and wire-EDM, as well as with the stress values meas-ured by X-ray diffraction.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to verify the validity of sheet buckling design based on the effective width theory investigation of impact crushing properties in high strength steel sheets. We clarify the need to make full sections effectively without elastic buckling occurring and consider the application of the effective width theory under high speed deformation. We report our findings of our investigation into the sheet buckling phenomenon with numerical simulation by varying deformation strain rate, mechanical property of material and member configuration. The results demonstrate that, with increasing crush speed, the cross section of a steel sheet become effective, while there is a high possibility of the buckling phenomenon that does not function as efficient impact absorption and is not evaluated with the existing theory.