This paper presents a review of advances in research on fire resistance of high-strength concrete (HSC) and ultra-high-strength concrete (UHSC). Further research needs in the near future on UHSC, especially on reactive powder concrete (RPC), are also discussed. It is commonly recognized that HSC suffers strength loss in a manner basically similar to that of normal strength concrete. But the main problem of HSC is explosive spalling under high temperature, which can be solved by employing either polymer fiber or steel fiber. Since RPC200 is a type of RPC which has been successfully prepared in many counties and is to be applied to engineering practice, fire resistance of RPC200 needs a series of investigations urgently. The objectives of such investigations are to restrain explosive spalling and minimizing spalling probability, so as to ensure satisfactory fire resistance of RPC. It is expected that a research will be carried out on explosive spalling behavior, fracture properties, and micro-structure, to establish a mechanism as well as technical measures for improving fire resistance of RPC.