Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting

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Authors: Abbas Fahami, Reza Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi
Abstract: The mechanical activation was employed to study the phase evolution of the Mg–TiO2–CaHPO4–CaO nanocrystalline system. The powders mixture with certain weight percent was grinded. Thermal annealing process at 650°C, 900°C and 1100°C temperatures resulted in generation of different compounds like MgTiO3/MgO/Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and MgTiO3/MgO/β-TCP and MgTiO3/Mg2TiO4/MgO/β-TCP, respectively. The compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The consequences of XRD analysis revealed that by increasing temperature, some composites with different morphological and structural features were detected. Beside, due to decomposing of HAp around 800°C, HAp converted to whitlockite (β-TCP) with growth of temperature. According to SEM and TEM observations, it was found that the synthesized powder contained large agglomerates which significant content of finer particles and agglomerates with spherical morphology. Because magnesium titanates based dielectric materials are useful for electrical applications, the electrical property of HAp has been proved, and the incorporation of these materials could result in new nanocrystalline dielectric materials.
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Authors: Ashkan Tavakoli Naeini, Manouchehr Vossoughi, Mohsen Adeli
Abstract: Linear-dendritic triblock copolymers of linear poly(ethylene glycol) and hyperbranched poly(citric acid) (PCA-PEG-PCA) were used as the reducing and capping agents to encapsulate gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs). PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers in four different molecular weights were synthesized using 2, 5, 10 and 20 citric acid/PEG molar ratios and were called A1, A2, A3 and A4, respectively. Nanoparticles were encapsulated simultaneously during the preparation process. AuNPs were simply synthesized and encapsulated by addition a boiling aqueous solution of HAuCl4 to aqueous solutions of A1, A2, A3 and A4. In the case of silver, an aqueous solution of AgNO3 was reduced using NaBH4 and AgNPs were encapsulated simultaneously by adding aqueous solutions of different PCA-PEG-PCA to protect the fabricated silver nanoparticles from aggregation. Encapsulated AuNPs and AgNPs were stable in water for several months and agglomeration did not occur. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have been encapsulated within PCA-PEG-PCA macromolecules and have been studied using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. Studies reveal that there was a reverse relation between the size of synthesized AuNPs/AgNPs and the size of citric acid parts of PCA-PEG-PCA copolymers. For example, the prepared gold and silver nanoparticles by A3 copolymer are of an average size of 8 nm and 16 nm respectively. Finally, the loading capacity of A1, A2, A3 and A4 and the size of synthesized AuNPs and AgNPs were investigated using UV/Vis data and the corresponding calibration curve. It was found that the loading capacity of copolymers depends directly on the concentration of copolymers and their molecular weight.
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Authors: Agnieszka Maria Jastrzębska, Antoni Ryszard Kunicki, Andrzej Roman Olszyna
Abstract: The present study is concerned with the morphology, physical properties and biocidal activity of Al2O3-Ag nanopowders produced by two methods: thermal decomposition-reduction and the silver nitrate reduction. The innovative method of thermal decomposition-reduction has been described in our earlier publication and is protected by our patent application, whereas the silver nitrate reduction method is commonly used in industry at the present. The nano-powders produced by these two methods differ considerably from one another in terms of their morphology and physical properties. The proposed method of thermal decomposition-reduction gives Al2O3-Ag nano-powders which are not only much less agglomerated with the average agglomerate sizes below 1 µm, but also the average size of their particles is considerably smaller (below 60 nm). Moreover, their specific surface is larger (above 200 m2g-1) and they have good bactericidal and fungicidal properties.
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Authors: Ali Reza Khaloo, Asghar Gholizadeh Vayghan, Mohammad Bolhassani
Abstract: In this study, the effect of agglomeration and non-uniform dispersion of silica particles on the mechanical and microstructural properties of cement paste incorporating silica fume and nanosilica (NS) with various specific surface areas (SSA) is experimentally investigated. The SSA and replacement percent of silica particles were considered as test variables and four series of mixes were made including one set of mixes for silica fume with a SSA of 20 m2/g and three sets of mixes for three different types of NS with SSA equal to 90, 200 and 380 m2/g. In each series of mix designs three different cement replacement percents of 1.5%, 3% and 5% were applied. The results indicate that as the SSA and replacement percent of silica particles increase, the domain of variation of compressive strength results rises dramatically. It is observed that an increase in SSA of silica particles results in further agglomeration and difficulty in dispersion of NS particles within the paste. Also, there is significant variation on distribution of NS particles between similar specimens.
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Authors: A.H. El-Shazly, H.A. Al-Turaif
Abstract: The aim of the present work is to use intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs) to improve the corrosion resistance ability of the galvanic coupling of galvanized steel coupled with steel by coating it with polypyrrole (PPy). The potentiostatic technique was used for forming the PPy layer using a potentiostat (EG&G A-273 Potentiostat/Galvanostat). Many variables were investigated for their effect on the characteristics of the formed coat layer such as: applied potential, electrolyte concentration (sodium tartrate concentration), solution pH, and type of electrode. The formed coat layer was investigated using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique. Finally, the corrosion resistance ability of the galvanic coupling of PPy coated galvanized steel coupled with bare steel was investigated using electrochemical methods such as Tafel method. The results show that the galvanic coupling of PPy coated galvanized steel and bare steel has a corrosion current which is 31.8% less than the galvanic coupling of bare galvanized when coupled with steel.
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Authors: Bruno Allison Araújo, Gabriel Dias Travassos, Antonio Almeida Silva, Eudésio Oliveira Vilar, Jorge Palma Carrasco, Carlos José de Araújo
Abstract: The present work aims to study the hydrogen embrittlement process in API 5L X60 and API 5L X80 steels. The tests were performed using two kinds of hydrogen sources to work with two conditions of hydrogen damage: environmental hydrogen embrittlement and internal hydrogen embrittlement. The mechanical behavior of API 5L X60 and API 5L X80 steels in tensile tests, with and without hydrogen, were studied. Under environmental hydrogen embrittlement conditions, the API 5L X60 steel presented a softening process observed by the decrease in yield strength and increase in its deformation. The API 5L X80 steel was more susceptible to the phenomenon due the deformation decrease of hydrogenated samples. In notched samples, both steels were susceptible to embrittlement as shown by the decrease in elongation. Under internal hydrogen embrittlement conditions, in both steels the changes in deformation were significant and can be attributed to changes in the hydrogen trapping due to the hydrogenation process used, the chemical composition and microstructure. It was observed that the fracture surface morphology of hydrogenated samples of both steels was ductile by microvoids coalescence, and that the distribution of dimples per unit area was higher in the API 5L X60 steel. It can be concluded, as reported in the literature, that the reversible hydrogen trapping observable in environmental hydrogen embrittlement is more damaging than irreversible hydrogen trapping, observable in internal hydrogen embrittlement.
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Authors: Ivca Kuzmanić, Igor Vujović, Joško Šoda
Abstract: The paper proposes a method, the so-called wavelet description, for corrosion monitoring in marine environment which is based on taking the energy difference contained in energy from coefficients derived by applying complex wavelet transforms. Then the rms value of coefficients has been accounted that form an illumination-independent energy representation of corroded and corrosion-free parts. The robustness on illumination variations has been achieved because by applying the proposed algorithm the energy representation enables reduction of the noise, since getting the difference of two subsequent images leaves only greater values of differences.
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Authors: Javier León, C.J. Luis-Pérez, Daniel Salcedo, Ivan Pérez, Juan Pablo Fuertes, Ignacio Puertas, Rodrigo Luri
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that severe plastic deformation processes (SPD) improve the mechanical properties of the processed parts. Some of the most outstanding SPD processes are as follows: High Pressure Torsion (HPT), Repetitive Corrugation and Straightening (RCS), Cyclic Extrusion Compression (CEC), Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB), Conform and Continuous Combined Drawing and Rolling (CCDR), among others, but the most well-known is Equal Channel Angular Extrusion or Pressure (ECAE/ECAP). The aim of these processes is to introduce high values of deformation inside the parts in order to reduce the grain size and thus to improve the mechanical properties of the starting material. The study of the damage imparted to an AA-6082 alloy is made in the present work. This alloy is received as cast and it is quenched at a temperature of 530 °C during 4 hours in order to be processed by ECAE at room temperature using different geometries of the dies. The imparted damage is also studied by using FEM simulations.
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Authors: Antony T. McTigue, Annette M. Harte
Abstract: This paper presents the results from an experimental test program conducted on commercially available oriented strandboard (OSB) panels and statistical analyses of the results. Standardised testing was used to determine the short-term behaviour of OSB/3 panels subjected to tension loading. A variety of thicknesses sourced from three different producers were used. Analysis of the results indicate that a quadratic expression in the form of  = a2 + b provides the best description of the relationship between stress (and strain ( up to the point of failure. It has also been shown that the coefficients a and b of the quadratic regression equations are negatively correlated to each other. Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests were conducted on the results for tension strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE). The results indicate that the tension strength and MOE come from populations that follow either normal or lognormal probability distributions.
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