Testing and Evaluation of Inorganic Materials II

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Authors: Shan Ge, Yu Cheng Yin, Zhi Qiang Liu
Abstract: In order to determine the torsion strength of non-metal materials at ambient and high temperature, a kind of equipment with inductive heating, infrared thermometer and torque loading by mechanical electrical rider was development. This equipment has advantages such as quick heating, accurate temperature test and controlling, easy controlling and continues of torque loading and test atmosphere can be controlled. The torsion strength of fireclay bricks with sample size of 40 mm × 40 mm × 230 mm, were tested separately at room temperature, 800°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C, using this equipment. Results indicated that for the same batch of samples, the torsion strength determined by this equipment has good consistency, and mean while, it was found that the torsion strength decreased with the increase of test temperature obviously. In additional, developed equipment could be used for the determination of torsion creep at high temperature, the highest temperature of fracture under certain torque during the heating process, torque cycle fatigue failure of materials and so on.
Authors: Zhi Jian Peng, Tao Wen, Jiang Hong Gong, Cheng Biao Wang, Zhi Qiang Fu, He Zhuo Miao
Abstract: Through the analysis of the nanoindentation data obtained on metals, ceramics and glass, it has been confirmed that the elastic recovery during unloading cycle may be related with the material parameter H/E, and a polynomial representation which is better than the power law for the description of the unloading behavior of nanoindentation was proposed in this letter.
Authors: Bei Xu, Jiang Hong Gong
Abstract: The load-displacement curves for a series of ceramic and glass samples were recorded continuously during the low-load Vickers hardness testing. Then the hardnesses of all samples were determined by analyzing the unloading curves. It was found that all the test materials exhibit indentation size effect (ISE) similar to that observed in nanoindentation testing. The applicability of the proportional specimen resistance (PSR) model and the modified PSR model was then examined using the measured indentation data.
Authors: Liang Jiang, Yu Hong Chen, Bin Chen, Wen Zhou Sun
Abstract: SiC-TiB2 composite was prepared by boron (B) and carbon(C) as sintering additive via presureless sintering in 2180°C. Fracture toughness of SiC-TiB2 measured by indentation method and single edge notched beam specimen tenichques were analyzed and compared, and the most suitable indentation method equation was confirmed. Results revealed that the fracture toughness and flexure strength of the materials were influenced at varied degree by the content of TiB2, which had no effect on the selection of the most suitable equation for calculating the fracture toughness of the materials by indentation method. The fracture toughness decreases with the increasing TiB2 content. When the TiB2 content was 30%, SiC-TiB2 composite had the best fracture toughness.
Authors: Xin Yi Zhao, Shi Bao Li, Xu Gong
Abstract: To evaluate the effects of specimen grips on the measurement of the micro-tensile bond strength (mTBS) to dentin. Methods: Twelve extracted human molars were sectioned to expose mid-coronal dentin. Each surface was ground with 600-grit SiC paper. Four adhesives: Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply, USA), Contex (DMG, German), Adper Prompt (3M/ESPE, USA) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray, Japan) were applied to the polished surfaces followed by creation of composite buildups. After 24 hr storage in 37°C water, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce multiple beams of composite-bonded dentin, approximately 0.8 mm2 in cross-sectioned area. Half of the specimens were attached to testing grips A which did not contain positioning pins and another half were attached to the testing grips B which contained positioning pins. All specimens were tested using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Results: Specimens tested using the grips A presented lower mTBS than using the grips B (P<0.01). Many specimens tested using the grips A showed mix failure or cohesive failure within composite, and most of the failures were adhesive for specimens tested using the grips A. Conclusion: Specimen grips without positioning pins cannot accurately present mTBS and the grips with positioning pins can more accurately present mTBS.
Authors: Rong Jian Lu, Ting Ting Ma, Yuan Fu Yi, Long Quan Shao, Jie Mo Tian, Kang Lin Hou, Ning Wen, Bin Deng
Abstract: Bilayered three-point bending strength specimen of KAVO zirconia-Vita VM9 veneering porcelain were made according to ISO6872 standard, the core to porcelain thickness ratio was 1:1. Specimens were subjected to multiple dentine porcelain firing cycles. Three-point bending strength were tested, SEM was used to observe the characteristics of the failure mode. Results show that there was no influence on the bending strength by multiple firing, the three-point bending strength were 996 ~ 1020 MPa after multiple firing, and no obvious defects was found at the interfaces. In all bilayered specimen, the bulk fracture initiated at the tensile surface of the core material and was consistently accompanied with porcelain crush and delamination at the interface.
Authors: Dan Wang, Yuan Zhi Xu, Cheng Lin Lu, Qi Xiang Yang, Dong Sheng Zhang, Long Quan Shao, Rao Rao Wang
Abstract: Four sorts of zirconia dental ceramic systems including Cercon smart, Lava, Porcera, and CEREC 3 were studied to analyze fracture mechanism of different CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic. In each system, 12 sectioned specimens were prepared, 6 specimens were taken as controlled group, 6 as experimental group. Quasi-statistic loading before and after cyclic loading was applied at the veneer surface of the specimen. Deformation and crack initiation were monitored with camera in order to carry out digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The results showed that median cracks were observed under the yielding zone. Specimens fractured along the core/veneer interface with the crack growth. No cone crack was confirmed and fracture only existed in veneer layer. After cyclic loading there were no significant differences for the four ceramic systems in terms of the critical load, while significant differences existed in terms of the fracture load. Both critical load and fracture load were lowered after cyclic loading. After cycling loading, the 4 tested zirconia CAD/CAM ceramic possess high fracture strength to meet the requirement for oral functions. The fracture modes of the four zirconia ceramic systems indicate that the strength of the veneer should be enhanced.
Authors: Lin Jia Zhu, Yi Hong Liu, Hai Lan Feng, Hui Juan Chen, Qing Hui Zhang, Yan Qiu, Yi Wang Bao
Abstract: Bi-layer all-ceramic dental crowns comprise an inner core made of alumina or zirconia and an outer porcelain shell. The veneer safe from damage is mainly depended on the properties of core materials due to the poor strength and toughness of porcelain. The fracture modes and crack transformation of zirconia/porcelain and alumina/porcelain bi-layer composites reveal the potential feasibilities of improving the fatigue life of all-ceramic restorations. The failure modes of bi-layer composites were confirmed under cyclic spherical fatigue loading by dynamic microcosmic observation. Crack modes and evolvement of bi-layered composites were explored inflecting with fatigue load, cycles, frequency and water environment. Microcosmic morphology of the samples was observed by high depth of field stereomicroscope to determine degree and modes of fatigue damage. The appearance of cone cracks of porcelain surface was almost consistent in both of zirconia and alumina bi-layer composites. However, the pattern and process of the damage are different under cycle fatigue load. Furthermore, process of fatigue damage of bi-layer composites were observed to failure rapidly under water environment in both of zirconia and alumina bi-layer composites.
Authors: Jie Wei, Yu Hong Chen, Liang Jiang
Abstract: Short carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) composites were prepared with boron (B) and carbon (C) as sintering additives via pressureless sintering at 2150°C. The damage mechanism of fiber was investigated as following: (1) The carbon fiber was seriously physically damaged in the process of material mixing; (2) The chemical damage of the carbon fiber was happened in the reaction with matrix as the high sintering temperature; (3) Numerous cavities exist between the carbon fiber and the matrix leads to the weak interfacial strength.

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