Magnesium Based Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass Ceramics for Dental Tissue Regeneration
Scaffold-based tooth engineering is currently the most popular approach towards replacing dental tissues or even engineering a bio-tooth. Although, various scaffold materials have been employed in tooth regeneration, the scaffold-based tooth design has, until now, achieved only limited success. Recently, bioactive Mg-based ceramics have attracted interest as Mg plays an important role on skeletal metabolism and affects the quality and structure of hard dental tissues. Mg has been reported to improve the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics, control biodegradation rate and stabilize the cell-material interface improving cell attachment and growth. The aim of this study was the development of an experimental Mg-based ceramic material, with enhanced bioactivity and adequate mechanical properties, in order to be potentially used in dental tissue regeneration. The Mg-based ceramic was prepared by the sol-gel method, while the stabilization was performed at 1300, 1400 and 1450oC in order a fully crystalline material to be obtained. The characterization of the materials -before and after immersion is Simulated Body Fluid (SBF)- was performed by Fourier Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy associated with an EDS analyzer (SEM-EDS), while the flexural strength of uniaxially pressed pellets was measured using a universal testing machine for 3- point bending tests (Instron 3344). FTIR spectra and XRD patterns of all powder samples before immersion in SBF solution confirmed the presence of three crystalline phases; akermanite, merwinite and diopside. The onset of apatite formation on the surface of all powders was observed even after three days of immersion, while the apatite formation on the surface of the sintered pellets was slightly delayed. Flexural strength values were in the range of 30Mpa. In conclusion, Mg-based glass-ceramics attain adequate mechanical integrity and high rate of bioactivity and could be potentially used in the construction of ceramic scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration.
Eyup Sabri Kayali, Gultekin Goller and Ipek Akin
O. M. Goudouri et al., "Magnesium Based Sol-Gel Derived Bioactive Glass Ceramics for Dental Tissue Regeneration", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 493-494, pp. 884-889, 2012