Abstract: Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI) in a nuclear reactor occur due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and the formation of low melting point eutectic compounds. Deposition of diffusion barrier coatings of a thin oxide on the inner surface of the cladding can potentially reduce or delay the onset of FCCI. This study examines the feasibility of using nanofluid-based electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process to deposit coatings of titanium oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and vanadium oxide. The deposition parameters, including the nanofluid composition, current, and voltage were optimized for each coating material using test flat substrates of T91 ferritic-martensitic steel. Diffusion characteristics of the coatings were investigated by diffusion couple experiments using the fuel surrogate cerium. These diffusion couple studies performed in the temperature range of 560°C and 585°C showed that the oxide coatings significantly reduce the solid state inter-diffusion between cerium to steel.
Abstract: Superhydrophilic surfaces with hydrophobic layers were successfully produced in order to enhance critical heat flux (CHF) and reduce boiling inception temperatures (BIT). The novel surfaces were fabricated by a hybrid electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method coupled with a break down anodization (BDA) process. With the BDA process, microporous superhydrophilic surfaces were created on titanium substrates. Subsequently, nanoporous hydrophobic layers were deposited with EPD on the superhydrophilic surfaces. The hydrophobic layers provide numerous nucleation sites, lowering BIT while the superhydrophilic layers prevent film boiling, resulting in increased CHF. The resulting surfaces exhibit higher CHF with lower BIT than untreated titanium surfaces .
Abstract: We present a method for fabrication of textured MAX phase ceramics, particularly, Ti3SiC2; by EPD in a strong magnetic field (12T). Ti3SiC2 was dispersed in cationic polyelectrolyte-Polyethylenimine (PEI). Addition of 0.3-1dwb PEI resulted in high zeta potential values and suspension was found to be stable and of good fluidity. The optimized suspension parameters for EPD were determined as 10vol% Ti3SiC2 and 1dwb PEI in 50 % ethanolic water at pH ~ 7. X-ray diffraction analysis of the textured samples revealed that the preferred orientation of Ti3SiC2 grains parallel to the magnetic eld direction was along the a,b-axis. The Lotgering orientation factors on the textured top surface and textured side surface were determined as f (hk0) = 0.35 and f (00l) = 0.75, respectively.
Abstract: Conventional electrophoretic deposition is being combined with pulse electric fields to deposit yttria stabilized zirconia from ethanol based suspensions onto bondcoated turbine alloys for thermal barrier coatings. The addition of the pulse electric fields to the electrophoretic process has demonstrated the capability to decrease the coating roughness, minimize hydrolysis, and decrease coating edge effects commonly encountered in electrokinetic and electrochemical deposition processes. Subsequent to the electrophoretic deposition process the green body coatings were subjected to a combined binder burnout and sintering process for further coating densification. The coatings have been qualified in terms of surface roughness as well as microstructure and experiments have been performed to show that the pulse EPD process can deposit TBC materials onto turbine components.
Abstract: A successful electrophoretic deposition (EPD) markedly depends on the stability of the suspension. In this study the role of Triethanolamine (TEA) as a stabilizer in EPD of thick films of TiTe3O8 is presented. TiTe3O8 powders were synthesized via a conventional solid-state-reaction method and dispersed in acetone with and without TEA. The stability of the suspensions was addressed by zeta-potential, UV light and FTIR measurements. The specific adsorption of TEA to TiTe3O8 particles results in a high zeta potential and improved stability of the suspensions, allowing the preparation of high quality TiTe3O8 thick films on Pt coated Si substrates. TiTe3O8 films sintered at 700 °C are dense and homogeneous.
Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition is a promising method for the near net shaping of ceramics if deposit damage during removal from the electrode can be prevented. The latter can be achieved by providing a lubricated interface between electrode and deposit. During application of such a lubricant care must be taken that none of the electrode surface details are lost. Hence thins layers which closely represent the original electrode surface are needed. In the present work electrophoretic deposition of alumina powder on a thin layer of ionic liquid applied on polymer electrodes is described. After deposition this ionic liquid layers serves as a shear plane during the deposit removal. The resulting deposits exhibit a smooth surface quality and high green density. Furthermore experiments show that the ionic liquid can be used as a means for producing electrodes with areas at which deposition is locally prevented.
Abstract: Deposition of ceramic nanoparticles (dispersed in non-aqueous suspension) on in-plane electrodes and under the influence of AC electric fields in the frequency range of 0.01 Hz - 10 kHz is investigated. Analysis of the particle response to the applied field is a difficult task due to the mutual effect of electric and hydrodynamic forces which are present in the system. In this work, however, we show the possibility of dividing the frequency range into four domains with four distinct governing mechanisms. Possible mechanisms are suggested and dominant forces are determined for each domain. In situ optical microscopy observations are used for visualization of nanoparticles´ movement dispersed in liquid medium. These observations show that applying AC electrophoresis at frequencies below 10 kHz is an effective way for manipulating ceramic nanoparticles and device fabrication.
Abstract: Motivated by applications in the field of nanomanufacturing, we perform large-scale numerical simulations of the electrophoretic deposition of suspensions of charged colloids in an electrolyte. A simulation method is developed to model the full deposition process that captures linear electrophoresis, dipolar interactions, van-der-Waals forces, steric interactions, Brownian motion, as well as electric and hydrodynamic interactions with the electrodes. Using a fast algorithm, suspensions of up to 5,000 particles are simulated, and results are reported for the final deposit microstructure as a function of field strength. The simulation results demonstrate that regular crystalline colloidal assemblies are obtained at low field strengths and volume fractions, while more random structures with frequent defects are formed in stronger fields and at higher volume fractions, in agreement with recent deposition experiments.
Abstract: The present research endeavors to demonstrate the applicability of electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for the infiltration and coating of porous materials to create advanced composites. Motivated by improved materials requirements of tokamak fusion reactors, the composites are created by depositing ceramic nanoparticles in porous metallic matrices using both constant voltage and pulsed DC EPD. Silicon dioxide particles with a nominal diameter of 20 nm are used as inexpensive surrogates for more application-appropriate boron carbide due to their similar surface chemistry. Fabricated materials are characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energetic dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) to visualize coating quality and penetration of the material into the substrate. At low voltage, the deposited mass in constant voltage EPD increases linearly with time while at high voltage it asymptotically approaches a maximum yield of 1.988 grams. Pulsed EPD experiments demonstrate a reduction in deposition yield but also elimination of macro-pore generation in the low voltage case. A non-dimensional parameter, ξ*, relating electrokinetics and diffusion is derived which improves process design for pulsed EPD systems.