Bone Regenerative Properties of Injectable Calcium Phosphate/PLGA Cement in an Alveolar Bone Defect
Periodontitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, which can lead to early tooth loss. The conventional treatment of periodontitis is to arrest the disease progression. Most reconstructive procedures involve application of bone substitutes, barrier membranes or a combination of both into the bony defects. Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are the predominant type of bone substitute material used for reasons of injectability and hence perfect filling potential for bone defects. Recently, injectable apatitic CPCs demonstrated to be more rapidly degradable when combined with poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres. Further, PLGA microspheres can be used as a delivery vehicle for growth factors. In this study, the performance of injectable CPCs as a bone substitute material for alveolar bone defects created in Beagle dogs was evaluated. Four CPC-formulations were generated by incorporating hollow or dense PLGA microspheres, either or not loaded with the growth factors (platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Implantation period was 8 weeks. Bone formation was based on histological and histomorphometrical evaluation. The results demonstrated that filling alveolar bone defects with CPC-dense PLGA revealed significant more bone formation compared to CPC-hollow PLGA either or not loaded with IGF and PDGF. In summary, we conclude that injectable CPC-dense PLGA composites proved to be the most suitable material for a potential use as off the shelf material due to its good biocompatibility, enhanced degradability and subsequent bone formation.
Kunio Ishikawa and Yukihide Iwamoto
R.P. F. Lanao et al., "Bone Regenerative Properties of Injectable Calcium Phosphate/PLGA Cement in an Alveolar Bone Defect", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 529-530, pp. 300-303, 2013