Histological Analysis of Bone Bonding and Ingrowth into Connected Porous Hydroxyapatite Spacers in Spinal Surgery
To evaluate the osteoconductive potential of connected porous hydroxyapatite (HAp), we histologically analyzed the newly formed bone inside unidirectional porous HAp (Regenos®, Kuraray, Japan; 75% porosity, n=17) and interconnected porous HAp (Neobone®, Covalent Materials, Japan; 75% porosity, n=10) 26 weeks after their implantation as bone spacers between the split lumbar laminae of goats. As a control, non-connected porous HAp spacers (Apaceram®, Pentax, Japan; 50% porosity, n=5) were used. After staining non-decalcified samples with Villanueva Goldner, changes in pore shape were evaluated microscopically and new bone formation in HAp spacers was quantitatively analyzed. In addition, blood vessel distribution was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Changes in pore shape were observed in 76% of the Regenos® spacers and 90% of the Neobone® spacers but were not detected in the Apaceram® spacers. Only limited new bone formation was observed in the Regenos® and Neobone® spacers, whereas vascular-like structures were detected in 82% of the Regenos®, 70% of the Neobone®, and 80% of the Apaceram® spacers. The changes in pore shape were thought to have resulted from the low initial compression strength of the connected porous HAp, which may have limited the inherent osteoconductive potential of connected HAp. Our findings suggest that the maintenance of pore shape is required for promoting new bone formation in connected porous HAp when used as lamina spacers in spinal surgery.
Kunio Ishikawa and Yukihide Iwamoto
T. Funayama et al., "Histological Analysis of Bone Bonding and Ingrowth into Connected Porous Hydroxyapatite Spacers in Spinal Surgery", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 529-530, pp. 309-312, 2013