Abstract: The Preisach formalism is used as a basis for a vector model of magnetic hysteresis in soft magnetic materials subject to tensile stress. The model uses as vector elementary hysteresis operator the Stoner-Wohlfarth mechanism of coherent rotation while the Preisach density is constructed as the weighed sum of probability density functions corresponding to the high and low induction regions. The model reproduces the basic phenomenology of stress-dependent hysteresis: the double peak in differential permeability modeled as the effect of internal demagnetizing fields emerging from residual stresses; the increase in coercivity due to increased pinning; the decrease in magnetic induction as the result of non-180o domain rotation. The role of the negative differential permeability near remanence and its derivative is discussed with respect to residual stresses and magnetic NDT.
Abstract: The experimental investigation on transparent solid/solid (Aluminum and Plexiglas) interface leaky waves generated by a pulse laser and detected with a photo elastic effect technique is reported. Three waves Lateral wave, Leaky Rayleigh (LR) wave and Leaky Interface wave (IW) are detected successfully; The velocity of the detected interface wave is in good agreement with theoretical calculation and the attenuation characteristic of the two Leaky waves is also in accordance with the theoretical prediction. The Leaky waves propagate along the weak bonding interface is also measured, it was found with the continue Epoxy solidifying, the wave amplitude gradually decrease and the two Leaky waves are more difficult to distinguish. The successful measurement should improve the scientific and technological potential for the research of solid/solid interface waves.
Abstract: Graphene is a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional 2D honeycomb lattice. The graphene sheets in graphite interact with each other through van der Waals forces to form layered structure. The first graphene sheets were obtained by extracting monolayer sheets from the three-dimensional graphite using a technique called micromechanical cleavage in 2004 [. There are numerous attempts in the literature to produce monolayer graphene sheets by the treatment of graphite. The first work was conducted by Brodie in 1859 and GO was prepared by repeated treatment of Ceylon graphite with an oxidation mixture consisting of potassium chlorate and fuming nitric acid [. Then, in 1898, Staudenmaier produced graphite oxide (GO) by the oxidation of graphite in concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid with potassium chlorate [. However, this method was time consuming and hazardous. Hummers and Offeman found a rapid and safer method for the preparation of GO and in this method graphite was oxidized in water free mixture of sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate and potassium permanganate [.
Abstract: An electrode interface was prepared using a mixture of a cheap carbon nanomaterial KetjenBlack (KB) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) dispersed in a biopolymer chitosan. Bilirubin oxidase (BOD) was proved to adsorb effectively on such a nanointerface, retaining its catalytic activity for reduction of dioxygen to water, which was proved by cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, three distinct cathodic redox reactions were determined in the absence of oxygen, suggesting that KB/CNT template provides a suitable micro and nanoporosity for direct electron transfer between BOD and the modified electrodes revealing all three known active sites of BOD. Furthermore, BOD was adsorbed on graphene oxide with subsequent electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide into a conductive graphene film with BOD trapped within the matrix. Two active sites of BOD were observed on the electrode modified by graphene suggesting the enzyme is oriented in a different way compared to the KB/CNT nanointerface due to changes in the nature of functional groups within the nanocomposite, changed porosity of the nanointerface or as a result of electrochemical perturbation of the matrix during reduction of graphene oxide. A more detailed fundamental investigation of the influence of the nanointerface matrix on an adsorption and orientation of BOD will without any doubt allow us to tailor ability of such composites to reduce dioxygen to water with high efficiency, what is a feature important for construction of robust and effective biocathodes of enzymatic biofuel cells.
Abstract: Photonic crystal type nanoarchitectures have an important advantage over conventional displays: they do not fade under solar illumination; on the contrary, more intense illumination generates more intense color. We present a simple method based on cooling in ambient air - to observe the color change of several butterfly wings colored by various photonic nanoarchitectures. The color change can be attributed to the condensation of atmospheric humidity in the nanocavities of the photonic nanoarchitecture. The effects were investigated by controlled cooling combined with the in-situ measurement of the changes in the reflectivity spectra. For certain species the reflectivity maximum (color) has almost completely disappeared. A correlation was also found between the openness of the nanostructure and the time of the color change. Cooling experiments, using thin copper wires showed that color alteration could be limited to millimeters; this may offer a possible alternative for display technology.
Abstract: This paper reports on a study of the propagation characteristics of visco-elastic, Rayleigh waves induced by laser ultrasonics in half space structures. Beginning with the Kelvin model, the characterization equation and the normal displacement of visco-elastic Rayleigh waves in are derived and the influence of the visco-elastic modulus on dispersion and attenuation are discussed. The transient response of a visco-elastic Rayleigh wave is also simulated by means of Laplace and Hankel inversion transforms. The papers results and conclusions will provide insights and guidance for estimating visco-elastic parameters
Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a leading biocompatible material extensively used for bone implants as a porous ceramic graft and as a bioactive coating. Electrical characteristics of HA can be employed in implantable devices for real-time in vivo pressure sensor applications such as in knee or hip prosthesis. In particular, high piezo and pyroelectricity of HA, its polarisation by electron beam and selective adsorption of proteins on polarised domains indicate the potential for real-time biosensing applications of HA. For this purpose, a comprehensive understanding of the dielectric behaviour of different forms of HA over a frequency range relevant for biomedical sensing is critical. Such information for HA, especially its frequency dependent dielectric behaviour over the GHz range, is rare. To this end, we report on novel investigations of properties of HA in powder and film forms in the GHz frequency range.
Abstract: Laser-induced fragmentation and desorption of fragments of PTCDA films vacuum-deposited on GaAs (100) substrate has been studied by time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy. The main effect caused by pulsed laser light irradiation (pulse duration: 10 ns, photon energy: 2.34 eV and laser fluence ranging from 0.5 to 7 mJ/cm2) is PTCDA molecular fragmentation and desorption of the fragments formed, whereas no desorption of intact PTCDA molecule was detected. Fragments formed are perylene core C20H8, its half C10H4, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and atomic oxygen. All desorbing fragments have essentially different kinetic energy. The mechanism of photoinduced molecular fragmentation and desorption is discussed.
Abstract: Effects of magnetic material, coating thickness, and tip radius on magnetic force microscope (MFM) spatial resolution have been systematically investigated. MFM tips are prepared by using an UHV sputtering system by coating magnetic materials on non-magnetic Si tips employing targets of Ni, Ni-Fe, Co, Fe, Fe-B, and Fe-Pd. MFM spatial resolutions better than 9 nm have been confirmed by employing magnetic tips coated with high magnetic moment materials with optimized thicknesses.