Microfluidic Gas Sensing with Living Microbial Cells Confined in a Microaquarium
We investigated on-chip cytotoxicity gas sensing using the bacterial chemotaxis of Euglena confined in a microaquarium. The sensor chip made from PDMS had one microaquarium and two microfluidic channels passing aside of the microaquarium. The chemotactic microbial cells were confined in the microaquarium, whereas two gases (one sample and one reference) flowed in the two isolated microchannels. Gas molecules move from the microchannels into the microaquarium by permeation through porous PDMS wall, and dissolve into the water in the microaquarium, where Euglena cells are swimming. The chemotactic movements of Euglena were observed with an optical microscope and measured as traces in real time. By injecting CO2 and air into each microchannel separately, the Euglena cells in the microaquarium moved to air side, escaping from CO2. This observation showed that the concentration gradient of CO2 was produced in the water in the microaquarium. The CO2-avoiding movement of Euglena was increased largely at a CO2 concentration of 40%, and then moderately increased above 60%. Some Euglena cells stopped swimming at the air side of the microaquarium and remained there even after CO2 has been removed, which can be used as the indicator of CO2 history.
Evangelos Hristoforou and D.S. Vlachos
K. Ozasa et al., "Microfluidic Gas Sensing with Living Microbial Cells Confined in a Microaquarium", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 543, pp. 431-434, 2013