A Novel Handheld Electrochemical Analyzer System Interfaced to a Smartphone
Detailed in this paper is the design of a novel handheld electrochemical analyzer system interfaced to a smart phone, which provides versatile and cost-effective solution for real-time sensing applications. It was characterised for electron transfer events associated with chemical and biological samples. The presented design is implemented based on the Arduino nanoopen source electronics prototyping platform. The versatility of the instrument is further demonstrated by employing the electrochemical analyser to a modified electrochemical cell which formed the basis of a DNA biosensor. Cyclic voltammetry technique was used to impose a triangular waveform on an electrochemical cell and the resulting current through the cell was then monitored. The DNA biosensor generated unique electrical signals in real-time between complementary and non-complementary oligonucleotides sequences of the Bacillus cereus DNA. The effects of hybridization and non-specific binding were compared when the probe DNA molecules were immobilized on a conducting polymer matrix. The results showed that the probe DNA immobilized using electrochemical adsorption yielded better hybridization signals compared to other immobilization methods. The performance of the DNA sensor proved to be effective in terms of selectivity, sensitivity and reproducibility of hybridization events. Analysis of these DNA probes showed that the minimum level of detection was 33.3 pg/ml.
Evangelos Hristoforou and D.S. Vlachos
V. Velusamy et al., "A Novel Handheld Electrochemical Analyzer System Interfaced to a Smartphone", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 543, pp. 47-50, 2013