Microstructural Features of the ZnO-Bi2O3 Binary System


Article Preview

Grain growth in ZnO with Bi2O3 addition of up to 1 mol% was examined in great detail for sintering in air. The results are analyzed and compared with previous reports in the context of the simplified phenomenological grain growth kinetics equation along with the physical properties of the sintered ceramics. In spite of the eutectic temperature at 735 °C, high density (> 90%) was not achieved at all Bi2O3 contents; this finding was contradictory to the well-known liquid-phase sintering. At 800 °C, rapid improvement in sintering occurred when increasing the content of Bi2O3 from 0.125mol% to 0.25mol%. Schematic study on weight loss also demonstrated an insignificant level of Bi2O3 volatilization under certain content. Analysis of the grain growth kinetics from isothermal sintering (900 °C - 1,000 °C) revealed strikingly different results in both grain growth exponent (n) and activation energy previously reported in literature. The n values ranged from 3.2 to 5.6 whereas the activation energy from 335 to 598 kJ/mol. Such large disparities were believed to be associated with various mass transport processes. The grain sizes in this study were much smaller than those published in literature (> 10 μm). This size difference, along with other microstructural features, was discussed and correlated in order to explain such anomalies and new findings obtained from the grain growth kinetics results.



Edited by:

John T.Harry Pearce, Chi-Na Benyajati, Somboon Otarawanna, Sorachon Yoriya, Supaporn Wansom, Thanasat Sooksimuang, Doungporn Sirikittikul, Naruporn Monmaturapoj, Manida Tongroon and Jitti Mungkalasiri




N. Yongvanich et al., "Microstructural Features of the ZnO-Bi2O3 Binary System", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 545, pp. 8-13, 2013

Online since:

March 2013




[1] E.M. El-Meliegy, Hesham I. Saleh, M. Selim, Sintering and characterization of bismuth-oxide-containing zinc oxide varistors. Mater. Charact. 52 (2004) 371–378.

DOI: 10.1016/j.matchar.2004.06.009

[2] E. Olsson, G. L. Dunlop, The effect of Bi2O3 content on the microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO varistor materials. J. Appl. Phys. 66(9) (1989) 4317-4324.

DOI: 10.1063/1.343978

[3] T. Senda, R. C. Bradt, Grain growth in sintered ZnO and ZnO-Bi2O3 ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73 (1990) 106-114.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1990.tb05099.x

[4] J. Kim, T. Kimura, T. Yamaguchi, Effect of bismuth oxide content on the sintering of zinc oxide. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 72(8) (1989) 1541-1544.

[5] H.R. Chen, Y.R. Wang, C.Y. Chang, R.T. Chang, T.L. Tsai, Y.W. Lao, S.T. Kuo, C.L. Hsieh, W.H. Tuan, Microstructural evolution during sintering of Bi2O3-doped ZnO. J. Electroceram. 21 (2008) 361-364.

DOI: 10.1007/s10832-007-9204-5

[6] V. Gunayab, O. Gelecek-Sulanb, O.T. Ozkana, Grain growth kinetic in x CoO–6 wt. % Bi2O3–(94-x) ZnO (x=0, 2, 4) ceramic. Ceram. Int. 30 (2004) 105–110.

DOI: 10.1016/s0272-8842(03)00071-3

[7] T.O. Ozkan, M. Avci, E. Oktay, H. Erkalfa, Grain growth in MnO-added ZnO-6wt% Bi2O3 ceramic system. Ceram. Int. 24 (1998) 151-156.

DOI: 10.1016/s0272-8842(97)00045-x

[8] J. Wong, Sintering and varistor characteristics of ZnO-Bi2O3 ceramics. J. Appl. Phys. 51(8) (1980) 4453-4459.

Fetching data from Crossref.
This may take some time to load.