The Development of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy via Oxygen Solid Solution Strengthening for Aerospace & Defense Applications


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The high cost of titanium has historically prevented widespread use in military ground vehicles. Two strategies to make this material more cost effective and viable are to reduce the cost of titanium armors or to improve the ballistic performance of titanium and reduce the amount of material required. This paper investigates the latter strategy. Mixtures of titanium powders and TiO2 particles were employed as starting materials and consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot extrusion. The content of TiO2 particles was 0~1.5% of the mass mixture. Solidification of oxygen atoms (from TiO2 particles) into Ti matrix occurred at 1073K for 1800 seconds in a vacuum. Tensile testing showed that Tensile Strength (TS) and Yield Strength (YS) increased in proportion to TiO2 content but elongation decreased slightly with increased TiO2 content. Extruded pure Ti powder material with 1.5% TiO2 particles produced 1040 MPa TS, 902 MPa YS and 25.1% elongation when tested. When using Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy powders with 0.5% TiO2 particles, the final extruded Ti-64 powder bars with oxygen solid solution showed 1226 MPa TS and 22.7% elongation. Initial ballistic evaluation showed the Ti-64 powder bars with 0.5% TiO2 particles yielded a marked improvement over the conventionally rolled Ti-64 alloy plate.



Edited by:

M. Ashraf Imam, F. H. (Sam) Froes and Ramana G. Reddy






T. L. Jones et al., "The Development of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy via Oxygen Solid Solution Strengthening for Aerospace & Defense Applications", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 551, pp. 118-126, 2013

Online since:

May 2013




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