Understanding the Formation Mechanism of Residual Stress during Precision Glass Moulding


Article Preview

Precision glass moulding is a technique that enables the production of optical lenses of complex geometries in a single step. However, it has been reported that the product quality highly depends on the properties of a raw material, the design of a die, and the selection of a processing program. This paper aims to reveal the formation mechanism of the residual stresses by optical lens moulding. To this end, a modulus-based constitutive model was developed to integrate with the deformation and stress analyses by the finite element method. The investigation showed that the residual stresses are caused by the variability and heterogeneity of thermal expansion in a lens, but that they can be reduced effectively by decreasing the rate of cooling within the stage from the molding temperature to the glass transition temperature.



Edited by:

Yeong-Maw Hwang and Cho-Pei Jiang




W. D. Liu and L. C. Zhang, "Understanding the Formation Mechanism of Residual Stress during Precision Glass Moulding", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 626, pp. 182-186, 2015

Online since:

August 2014




* - Corresponding Author

[1] Firestone, G.C., A. Jain, and A.Y. Yi, Precision laboratory apparatus for high temperature compression molding of glass lenses. Review of Scientific Instruments, 2005. 76(6): pp.6115-6122.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1921367

[2] Ananthasayanam, B., et al., Final Shape of Precision Molded Optics: Part I-Computational Approach, Material Definitions and the Effect of Lens Shape. Journal of Thermal Stresses, 2012. 35(6): pp.550-578.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01495739.2012.674830

[3] Ananthasayanam, B., et al., Final Shape of Precision Molded Optics: Part Ii-Validation and Sensitivity to Material Properties and Process Parameters. Journal of Thermal Stresses, 2012. 35(7): pp.614-636.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01495739.2012.674838

[4] Arai, M., Y. Kato, and T. Kodera, Characterization of the Thermo-Viscoelastic Property of Glass and Numerical Simulation of the Press Molding of Glass Lens. Journal of Thermal Stresses, 2009. 32(12): pp.1235-1255.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01495730903310557

[5] Yi, A.Y. and A. Jain, Experimental and numerical analysis compression molding of aspherical glass lenses - A combined. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2005. 88(3): pp.579-586.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00137.x

[6] Debenedetti, P.G. and F.H. Stillinger, Supercooled liquids and the glass transition. Nature, 2001. 410(6825): pp.259-267.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/35065704

[7] Angell, C.A., Structural Instability and Relaxation in Liquid and Glassy Phases near the Fragile Liquid Limit. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 1988. 102(1-3): pp.205-221.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3093(88)90133-0

[8] Scherer, G.W., Relaxation in Glass and Composites. 1986, New York: Wiley.

[9] Jain, A. and A.Y. Yi, Numerical modeling of viscoelastic stress relaxation during glass lens forming process. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 2005. 88(3): pp.530-535.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-2916.2005.00114.x

[10] Optics, J.D.R.P., Precision Glass Molding Technical Brief. (2007).

[11] Richter, F., Upsetting and Viscoelasticity of Vitreous SiO2: Experiments, Interpretation and Simulation Viskoelastizität von Kieselglas: Experimente, Interpretation und Simulation, in Technische Universität Berlin. 2006, Technische Universität Berlin: Berlin.

[12] Dyre, J.C., N.B. Olsen, and T. Christensen, Local elastic expansion model for viscous-flow activation energies of glass-forming molecular liquids. Physical Review B, 1996. 53(5): pp.2171-2174.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.53.2171

[13] Liu, W.D., H.H. Ruan, and L.C. Zhang, Revealing structural relaxation of optical glass through Young's modulus. 2014. (To be submitted).

[14] Ritland, H.N., Relation between Refractive Index and Density of a Glass at Constant Temperature. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 1955. 38(2): pp.86-88.