Abstract: Mesoscopic polarized negatively charged ordered water layers coating a metallic cathode can serve as a battery. On top of the water layers resides a normal phase of water and the electromotive force resides across the exclusion zone ordered water layers. Radiation incident on the ordered water layers provides the energy source which allows the battery operation.
Abstract: The mechanoelectrical transduction is studied on the synthetic polyelectrolyte gel sensors prepared by the radical polymerization and the cross-linking of calcium methacrylate in aqueous solution. The electrochemical potential of the gel sensors was measured in the course of their stretching deformation in the stepwise and oscillatory regimes. As the network of the gel was negatively charged the potential was negative with the mean value –90 mV. Under the stretching load the negative potential of the sensor diminished proportionally to the deformation both in the stepwise and the oscillatory regimes. Upon the oscillatory triangular linear axial deformation the potential of the sensor closely followed the load/unload dynamics deformation with the small time shift. The sensitivity of the mechanoelectrical transduction was 1 – 2 mV per 1% of deformation depended on the network density and the regime of stretching.
Abstract: The martensitic transformations (MT) in austenite stainless steel (SUS316) were observed by using a sensitive Flux-Gate (FG) sensor just after the magnetizations by the permanent magnet in the terrestrial field. MT in the small deformation range less than 5% elongation, was visualized by the 2-dimensional profile at each position together with the profile of the thickness deformations with an accuracy of several microns. We found the local MT enhancements up to 400[nT] at the positions along the changes of the thickness. In this experiment, the observations of MT were able to avoid the effects of the external fields or of the ac fields which was generated by the gating function in the FG sensor.
Abstract: Poly [2-methoxy, 5-(2¢-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) is a well known hole-conducting semiconductor utilized in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices because of its interesting electroluminescence. However, both electroluminescence and electrical conduction in this material sharply deteriorate upon exposure to oxygen, necessitating fabrication and hermetic sealing of the MEH-PPV-based devices in oxygen-free environments. Same shortcoming has excluded the material from applications requiring air exposure. We have recently presented a model for the oxidation mechanism of an MEH-PPV layer and have shown that such layers, after oxidation at certain conditions, can support air-stable electrical conduction. Here, we describe the experimental conditions required for the preparation of an oxidized MEHPPV layer, and provide experimental data on the stability of such layers at different conditions. It is shown that the fabricated air-stable oxidized MEH-PPV layers are excellent for a number of chemical sensor applications.
Abstract: The piezoresistivity for force sensing in wurtzite-ZnO nanowires with  orientation has been simulated on the basis of the first-principles calculations of model structures. According to the difference in wall structure, our devised nanowire models can be divided into three groups by their conductivities; no band-gap conducting models, direct band-gap semiconducting models, and indirect band-gap semiconducting models. The strain responses to carrier conductivity of n-or p-doped semiconducting wurtzite-ZnO nanowire models were calculated using band carrier densities and their corresponding effective masses derived from the one-dimensional band diagram by our original procedure for a small amount of carrier occupation. The conductivities of p-type direct band-gap models change drastically due to longitudinal uniaxial strain in the simulation: the longitudinal piezoresistance coefficient is 120 × 10–11 Pa–1 for p-type (ZnO)24 nanowire model with 1% compressive strain at room temperature.
Abstract: A reproducible organometallic approach was used in order to prepare zinc oxide gas sensitive layers. Various ZnO nanostructures with well-defined morphology were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of suitable organometallic precursor. These nanomaterials were deposited on miniaturized gas sensors substrates by an ink-jet method. The as prepared devices were tested towards different reducing gases, namely: CO, C3H8, and NH3. We showed that the morphology of these nanostructures significantly influences the sensor response level and selectivity to the reducing gases.
Abstract: The composing semiconductors became the support privileged of information and the communication, in particular grace to the faster development of Internet, for the systems of telecommunications to high debit, some components are necessary. It is for this reason that of the alternative structures have been proposed: the IV-IV heterostructures or III-V. The most effective components in this domain are the field effect transistors (High Electron Mobility Transistor: HEMT) on IIIV substratum. The present work is dedicated to the contribution to the development of a numeric physical model which based on the influence of the different parameters (physical and geometric) on the parameters characterizing the potential at the interface of a heterostructure in GaAsAl/GaAs. The present work also has aim to characterize dynamics carriers in a HEMT heterostructure which we will consider later a dynamic study of quantum well solar cells in a rigorous and complete manner.
Abstract: To examine perspectives of nanoparticle films in the role of active elements in strain sensors, morphological and electrical properties of self-assembled Au nanoparticle monolayer prepared by modified Langmuir-Schaefer technique onto supporting Mylar foil were studied under elongation. Along the probing of electrical response (characterized by the gauge factor of about 60), the small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) characterization assessed an average interparticle distance change, which was shown to vary proportionally to the substrate elongation. The approach allowed to unambiguously address the mechanism of the deformation-resistivity transduction.
Abstract: Ferromagnetic iron nanoellipsoids were prepared by the hydrogen reduction of ellipsoidal hematite nanoarchitectures. These magnetic nanoscale particles displayed a microstructure that showed clear similarities to the magnetosome chains of the magnetotactic bacteria. Specifically, such nanoellipsoids are formed by single-domain nanocrystals assembled into double chains sharing the same crystallographic orientation. In the present contribution, the magnetic properties of the Fe nanoellipsoids were explained considering the chain of spheres model of Jacobs and Bean, and thermal effects.